Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 489 594 participants by educational attainment

OverallCollege or aboveHigh schoolMiddle schoolPrimary schoolNo formal educationP trend
Participant no489 59427 78973 796139 091157 49891 420
Age, year51.644.445.746.854.460.8<0.001
Female, %59.132.542.547.261.687.4<0.001
Living in urban areas,%43.291.073.254.524.920.8<0.001
Currently married, %90.993.492.392.490.987.7<0.001
Occupation, %
 Managers or professionals5.354.310.01.40.20.0
 Agricultural, manufacturing, services or sales workers62.520.455.861.268.071.4
 Other occupations4.42.74.95.03.84.8
 Housework, retired, or unemployed27.722.529.332.528.023.8
Household income (RMB/year), %
 <10 00028.46.018.525.732.640.1
 10 000–19 99928.915.427.230.732.932.1
 ≥20 00042.878.654.343.634.527.8
Current smoker, %
 Male67.950.462.568.672.375.0<0.001
 Female2.70.51.32.03.24.0<0.001
Current daily alcohol drinker, %
 Male21.011.217.521.623.724.4<0.001
 Female0.90.80.80.80.91.2<0.001
 Eating fruit regularly*, %27.749.038.931.122.314.9<0.001
 Eating vegetable regularly*, %98.399.198.898.698.397.6<0.001
 Eating meat regularly*, %47.257.251.948.944.842.9<0.001
Physical activity, MET-hour/day
 Male22.618.921.222.523.724.4<0.001
 Female20.819.320.320.021.321.5<0.001
BMI, kg/m2
 Male23.424.123.623.423.222.8<0.001
 Female23.822.823.323.824.023.8<0.001
Overweight or obesity†, %
 Male40.951.044.541.737.932.7<0.001
 Female44.533.039.144.847.545.4<0.001
Waist circumference, cm
 Male81.883.982.882.281.179.6<0.001
 Female78.876.277.478.879.779.0<0.001
Central obesity‡, %
 Male37.346.841.638.633.926.9<0.001
 Female43.531.237.543.547.344.3<0.001
 CVDs family history§, %20.024.123.821.518.316.0<0.001
 Self-rated good health, %47.055.650.147.545.343.8<0.001
  • Means or percentages are displayed with adjustment for 5-year age groups, sex and 10 study regions where appropriate.

  • *Eating fruit, vegetables, or meat regularly: consumption frequency ≥5 days per week.

  • †Overweight or obesity: defined as BMI ≥24 kg/m2.

  • ‡Central obesity: defined as waist circumference ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women.

  • §CVDs family history: reporting at least one first-degree relative (parents and siblings) with heart disease or stroke.

  • MET, metabolic equivalent of task; BMI, body mass index; CVDs, cardiovascular diseases.