Table 4

Bivariate and multivariate associations of potential determinants and depressive symptoms, full sample

DomainVariableMean CES-D10BivariateMultivariate model 4
Estimate (95% CI)P valueEstimate (95% CI)P value
DemographicTotal6.70
Sex
 Female6.77Reference categoryReference category
 Male6.610.20 (−0.19 to 0.58)0.3140.70 (0.31 to 1.10)<0.001
Age in years
 145.75Reference categoryReference category
 156.390.62 (0.02 to 1.22)0.0430.60 (0.03 to 1.18)0.039
 166.690.96 (0.35 to 1.57)0.0020.73 (0.14 to 1.32)0.016
 177.171.39 (0.79 to 2.00)<0.0010.95 (0.33 to 1.58)0.003
 187.251.53 (0.84 to 2.22)<0.0010.86 (0.10 to 1.62)0.027
 197.761.87 (1.13 to 2.62)<0.0011.09 (0.26 to 1.92)0.010
Five or more household members
 No6.46Reference categoryReference category
 Yes6.900.36 (−0.03 to 0.75)0.0730.37 (−0.01 to 0.76)0.057
Female-headed household
 No6.71Reference categoryReference category
 Yes6.690.04 (−0.37 to 0.45)0.8470.16 (−0.24 to 0.56)0.426
Region*
 Mbeya6.31Reference category
 Iringa7.060.56 (−0.05 to 1.17)0.074
EconomicWealth level of household
 Richest6.54Reference categoryReference category
 Middle6.770.40 (−0.10 to 0.90)0.1140.45 (−0.02 to 0.93)0.063
 Poorest6.780.41 (−0.13 to 0.95)0.1370.47 (−0.05 to 0.99)0.076
Number of economic shocks (past year)
 06.57Reference categoryReference category
 16.630.03 (−0.50 to 0.56)0.9160.01 (−0.51 to 0.54)0.964
 26.22−0.21 (−0.79 to 0.36)0.466−0.39 (−1.03 to 0.24)0.223
 36.23−0.19 (−0.87 to 0.48)0.573−0.08 (−0.87 to 0.70)0.834
 46.760.07 (−0.76 to 0.91)0.8600.35 (−0.58 to 1.28)0.463
 5+9.102.72 (1.95 to 3.49)<0.0012.40 (1.48 to 3.32)<0.001
Youth owns a cell phone
 No6.57Reference categoryReference category
 Yes7.200.68 (0.20 to 1.15)0.005−0.44 (−1.01 to 0.12)0.123
Neighbourhood/environmentalAccess to services level
 High6.69Reference categoryReference category
 Middle6.83−0.05 (−0.78 to 0.69)0.899−0.03 (−0.72 to 0.65)0.927
 Low6.570.12 (−0.62 to 0.87)0.7470.02 (−0.68 to 0.72)0.947
Drought/flood (past year)
 No6.35Reference categoryReference category
 Yes7.420.93 (0.51 to 1.34)<0.0010.76 (0.36 to 1.17)<0.001
Livestock/crop disease (past year)
 No6.59Reference categoryReference category
 Yes6.840.36 (−0.04 to 0.75)0.075−0.25 (−0.78 to 0.28)0.354
Social and culturalEducation/employment
 Attending school/training6.07Reference categoryReference category
 Engaged in paid work7.221.38 (0.76 to 1.99)<0.0010.56 (−0.10 to 1.23)0.098
 School & paid work7.201.28 (0.23 to 2.34)0.0171.07 (0.05 to 2.09)0.040
 Neither7.421.47 (1.04 to 1.90)<0.0010.73 (0.24 to 1.22)0.003
Has a partner
 No6.35Reference categoryReference category
 Yes8.342.01 (1.52 to 2.51)<0.0011.82 (1.30 to 2.33)<0.001
Social support
 High5.69Reference categoryReference category
 Moderate6.761.37 (0.91 to 1.83)<0.0011.26 (0.80 to 1.71)<0.001
 Low7.972.41 (1.94 to 2.88)<0.0012.27 (1.81 to 2.74)<0.001
Attends weekly religious ceremony†
 No6.73Reference category
 Yes6.65−0.23 (−0.64 to 0.19)0.285
Number of adverse childhood experiences†
 0–16.77Reference category
 26.52−0.24 (−0.86 to 0.39)0.454
 36.55−0.23 (−0.90 to 0.44)0.503
 46.76−0.05 (−0.79 to 0.70)0.903
 5+6.930.13 (−0.60 to 0.85)0.727
Random effects
 Village variance (SE)1.41 (0.325)
 Intraclass correlation coefficient %6.5
  • Reported CES-D10 means are unadjusted. All regressions adjust for stratification variables. Multivariate model 4 adjusts for all domains within a single regression. Models 1–3, which adjust for domains separately, are shown in the appendix. Linear mixed models were used to account for clustering of CES-D10 within and between villages (random effects are not shown for bivariate regressions).

  • *All other bivariate and multivariate regressions adjust for region as part of sample stratification; therefore estimates are not shown elsewhere.

  • †Total N differs due to attrition. Data come from wave 2 for these indicators.

  • CES-D10, 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.