Table 1

Key characteristics of the cohorts included in the analysis

StudyWaveCountrynAgeSexPrevalence of low physical functioning*Prevalence of low cognitive functioning†
MeanSD% female%95% CI%95% CI
1066FirstCuba277175.27.065.217.116.3 to 17.937.435.6 to 39.2
Dominican Rep.198575.27.565.819.118.2 to 20.136.534.4 to 38.7
India197771.95.956.032.531.6 to 33.453.750.5 to 54.9
Puerto Rico199176.37.367.318.917.8 to 19.937.135.0 to 39.3
China216073.26.156.38.17.4 to 8.837.835.8 to 39.9
Mexico199574.36.663.213.712.8 to 14.640.338.1 to 42.4
Peru190974.87.361.512.912.0 to 13.833.731.6 to 35.9
Venezuela188572.36.763.516.615.6 to 17.642.740.5 to 45.0
COURAGEFirstFinland177458.615.856.927.225.0 to 29.338.336.1 to 40.6
Poland394057.017.960.255.453.8 to 57.140.138.6 to 41.7
Spain455559.715.954.632.931.6 to 34.341.139.7 to 42.6
ELSAFirstUK10 72063.910.954.531.530.7 to 32.443.742.8 to 44.6
ENRICA‡SecondSpain205171.86.352.218.016.3 to 19.741.138.9 to 43.2
HAPIEE‡SecondCzech Republic419158.37.254.014.413.2 to 15.653.552.0 to 55.0
Russia536958.06.957.927.625.8 to 29.450.949.5 to 52.2
Poland558857.76.951.916.415.5 to 17.448.747.4 to 50.0
Lithuania685460.97.554.728.027.2 to 28.856.555.4 to 57.7
LASIPilotIndia160355.011.956.115.313.0 to 17.641.539.2 to 44.0
MHASThirdMexico535068.59.665.148.246.1 to 50.243.241.9 to 44.6
SAGEFirstChina10 97158.311.547.731.030.0 to 32.038.837.9 to 39.8
Ghana248755.212.837.667.065.1 to 68.934.232.4 to 36.1
India601447.216.949.879.177.8 to 80.335.534.3 to 36.7
Mexico204861.814.260.958.556.2 to 60.851.148.9 to 53.2
Russia407962.413.064.365.664.3 to 67.047.245.6 to 48.8
South Africa258459.212.059.455.453.5 to 57.440.138.2 to 42.0
SHAREFirstIsrael252263.29.956.315.614.2 to 16.937.836.0 to 39.7
Austria157264.69.958.610.69.1 to 12.044.041.6 to 46.5
Belgium376963.710.654.515.013.7 to 16.238.036.4 to 39.5
Denmark167563.211.155.212.310.8 to 13.840.538.1 to 42.9
France300963.811.257.114.813.6 to 16.037.535.7 to 39.2
Germany292963.59.754.112.311.1 to 13.446.044.2 to 47.8
Greece280862.411.156.812.411.3 to 13.639.637.8 to 41.1
Italy253964.09.455.814.813.5 to 16.148.746.8 to 50.7
The Netherlands284262.710.154.312.510.8 to 14.240.839.0 to 42.6
Spain233065.810.858.517.215.8 to 18.645.243.2 to 47.2
Sweden295464.310.353.89.78.7 to 10.735.333.6 to 37.1
Switzerland96563.811.254.17.86.2 to 9.543.039.9 to 46.2
  • *Reported difficulties in any of the following functions: walking, using the toilet, bathing or showering, eating and getting dressed (age and sex standardised values).

  • †Test results were in the lowest 25% within the cohort for any of the following tests: immediate word recall, delayed word recall, verbal fluency.

  • ‡HAPIEE and ENRICA studies were included in the analysis for educational inequalities but not for income inequalities.

  • COURAGE, Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe; ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; HAPIEE, Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe; LASI, Longitudinal Ageing Study in India; MHAS, Mexican Health and Ageing Study; SAGE, Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health; SHARE, Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe.