Table 1

Summary of comparative outcomes for measurements of pooled incidence

GroupNo of
studies
No with participantsMain effectHeterogeneity
Pooled incidence
(95% CI)
Z scoreP valueQ statisticdfP valueI2 statistic
Psychological illness
SARS and MERS
 Depression824840.194 (0.102 to 0.339)−3.6960.000226.61670.00096.911
 PTSD1033400.268 (0.188 to 0.366)−4.3070.000207.99290.00095.673
 COVID-19
Depression108515 4520.270 (0.248 to 0.293)−17.2560.00027 525.3741070.00099.611
 PTSD1851 7210.164 (0.108 to 0.240)−6.6800.0005246.998170.00099.676
 Anxiety109127 7030.279 (0.246 to 0.315)−10.7240.00061 270.1781080.00099.824
 Insomnia35156 0690.287 (0.238 to 0.341)−7.0940.00011 906.587340.00099.714
  • MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.