Table 2

Key results and quality assessments for studies investigating household income (n=13)

First author (Year)Key resultsRisk of Bias¶
Household incomeAssociation between SDoH and MM?Value (95% CI, p value)ComparatorAdjusted for…SelectionInformation (Exposure)Information (Outcome)Confounding
Agborsangaya (2012)61 YesOR 2.39**(1.72–3.33)Annual household income <$30 k vs ≥$100 k CADAge, sex, education, living with childrenHMML
Agborsangaya (2013)62 YesOR 2.9 (2.2–3.7)Annual household income <$30 k vs ≥$100 k CADAge, sex, education, obesityHHML
Chung (2015)65 YesOR 1.52 (1.39–1.66, p<0.001)Monthly income <4 k vs >40 k HKDAge, gender, education, housing, employmentHMML
Hayek (2017)68 YesPRR 1.7 (1.2–2.5, p=0.005)Monthly income ≤$2 k vs >$4 k USDUnclearUHHU
Johnson-Lawrence (2017)69 YesOR 1.45 (1.38–1.53)Lowest income tertile vs highestAge, gender, ethnicity, education, interview year, region, marital status, last doctor visit, employment, home ownershipUMHL
Katikireddi(2017)39 YesOR 1.53 (1.25–1.87, p<0.05)Lowest income† tertile vs highestAge, age2, age3, sex, cohort, prior multimorbidity, time between waves and sex*cohort interactionMMML
Ki(2017)40 YesOR 3.48* (3.20–3.78)“Poor” (less than half the median annual household income†) vs “non-poor”No adjustmentUHMH
Laires(2018)41 YesOR 2.16* (1.95–2.40)Lowest income† quintile vs highestNo adjustmentLHMH
Lebenbaum(2018)66 YesOR 0.57 (0.52–0.62, p<0.001)Highest income† quintile vs lowestAge, age,2 sex, marital status, immigration status, education, rurality, homeownership, smoking, alcohol useLMHL
Lujic (2017)43 YesOR 0.58‡ (95% CI 0.52 to 0.66)Income >$70 k vs <$20 k CADAge, sexHMMM
Neilsen (2017)48 YesOR 1.44 (1.32–1.59, p<0.05)Lowest income tertile vs highestAge, sex, educationUHML
Prazeres (2015)52 NoOR 0.8§ (0.5–1.1, p=0.182)‘Some monthly income left over’ vs ‘Not enough monthly income to make ends meet’Age, sex, marital status, education, professional status, residence area, living arrangementHMLL
Roberts (2015)53 YesOR 4.4 (3.6–5.5)Lowest income quintiles vs highestAge, sex, household education, Aboriginal status, activity level smoking, stress, blood pressure, obesityHMHM
Schäfer(2012)60 Yes−0.27 conditions(−0.47 to −0.08, p=0.005)Change per unit on income† scale (one unit=one of steps: €400 to €1100 to €3000 to €8100 net income per month)Age, gender, marital status, job autonomy, household composition, incomeHMLU
Verest(2019)59 YesOR 5.36* , †† (4.88–5.88)“Lots of problems” managing money vs “no problems”No adjustmentHHMH
  • *OR calculated from data reported in paper.

  • †Income equivalised to account for number and/or age of residents in household.

  • ‡Based on self-reported health data. Findings consistent across hospital and medication health data.

  • §Multimorbidity defined as ≥2 chronic conditions.

  • ¶H, High; M, Medium; L, Low; U, Unclear.

  • **Inequalities greater for ages 25–44.

  • ††Inequalities greater for women and similar by ethnicity group.