Table 1

Covariates at baseline and outcome during the follow-up among refugees and Swedish-born individuals registered in Sweden in 2009 (n=4 373 640)

RefugeesSwedish-born individuals
n (%)n (%)
Total number239 742 (100)4 133 898 (100)
Sociodemographic factors*
Sex
 Men138 798 (57.9)2 116 306 (51.2)
 Women100 944 (42.1)2 017 592 (48.8)
Age (years)
 16–2435 112 (14.7)621 697 (15.0)
 25–3457 668 (24.1)888 316 (21.5)
 35–4462 365 (26.0)1 048 791 (25.4)
 45–5464 437 (26.9)984 653 (23.8)
 55–6420 160 (8.4)590 441 (14.3)
Educational level
 Low (0–9 years)60 317 (25.2)494 445 (12.0)
 Medium (10–12 years)98 302 (41.0)2 128 041 (51.5)
 High (>12 years)70 858 (29.6)1 491 839 (36.1)
 Missing information10 265 (4.3)19 573 (0.5)
Type of living area†
 Big cities115 942 (48.4)1 475 443 (35.7)
 Medium-sized cities87 056 (36.3)1 493 126 (36.1)
 Small cities/villages36 744 (15.3)1 165 329 (28.2)
Family situation
 Married/cohabiting without children living at home20 228 (8.4)440 134 (10.7)
 Married/cohabiting with children living at home107 230 (44.7)1 573 743 (38.1)
 Single‡ without children living at home84 040 (35.1)1 661 526 (40.2)
 Single with children living at home21 050 (8.8)282 990 (6.9)
 Children (=20 years old) living at home7192 (3.0)175 503 (4.3)
 Missing information<10<10
Country of birth
 Eritrea4517 (1.9)
 Ethiopia4645 (1.9)
 Somalia12 905 (5.4)
 Other countries in Africa5933 (2.5)
 Afghanistan4969 (2.1)
 Iran27 355 (11.4)
 Iraq49 156 (20.5)
 Syria6539 (2.7)
 Other countries in Asia27 871 (11.6)
 Chile8058 (3.4)
 Other countries in South America3567 (1.5)
 Former Yugoslavia70 433 (29.4)
 Other (including persons with missing information)13 794 (5.8)
Work-related factors§
Income from work
 Yes122 817 (51.2)3 313 944 (80.2)
 No116 925 (48.8)819 954 (19.8)
Unemployment**
 No unemployment176 380 (73.6)3 672 075 (88.8)
 Unemployment 1–180 days40 515 (16.9)364 336 (8.8)
 Unemployment >180 days22 847 (9.5)97 487 (2.4)
Health-related factors
Sickness absence**
 No sickness absence225 348 (94.0)3 851 056 (93.2)
 Sickness absence 1–90 days11 729 (4.9)239 157 (5.8)
 Sickness absence >90 days2665 (1.1)43 685 (1.1)
Somatic disorders
 Infectious and parasitic diseases17 225 (7.2)207 086 (5.0)
 Neoplasm12 987 (5.4)257 732 (6.2)
 Diabetes mellitus10 173 (4.2)97 274 (2.4)
 Diseases of the circulatory system15 576 (6.5)232 827 (5.6)
 Diseases of the respiratory system17 259 (7.2)242 170 (5.9)
 Diseases of the digestive system26 308 (11.0)330 367 (8.0)
 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system34 801 (14.5)518 724 (12.6)
 Disorders of the nervous system11 810 (4.9)181 693 (4.4)
 Other somatic disorders126 174 (52.6)1 969 345 (47.6)
Mental disorders
 Anxiety disorder7715 (3.2)107 436 (2.6)
 Bipolar disorder627 (0.3)20 809 (0.5)
 Depression9807 (4.1)105 158 (2.5)
 Post-traumatic stress disorder4902 (2.0)5090 (0.1)
 Other stress-related disorders5381 (2.2)48 663 (1.2)
 Other mental disorders8984 (3.8)163 686 (4.0)
Outcomes during the follow-up (2010–2013)
 Disability pension3804 (1.75)29 820 (0.78)
 Mortality1310 (0.55)30 041 (0.73)
  • *All sociodemographic factors were measured on 31st of December in 2009.

  • †Big cities: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo; medium-sized cities: cities with more than 90 000 inhabitants within 30 km distance from the centre of the city; small cities/villages.

  • ‡Single includes divorced, separated or widowed.

  • §All work-related factors were measured during year 2009.

  • ¶Categorical variable (1) income from work over 100 SEK, (2) no income from work.

  • **Unemployment and sickness absence was measured during 2009.