Table 3

Multiple GLM estimates of the association between famine exposure and sensory impairments in 2015

UnexposedFetal-exposedChildhood-exposed
Early childhoodMid childhoodLate childhood
Visual impairment
 OR (95% CI)*1.00 (ref.)1.26 (0.84 to 1.89)1.46 (0.73 to 2.94)1.30 (0.75 to 2.23)1.50 (1.02 to 2.21)
 OR (95% CI)†1.00 (ref.)1.29 (0.80 to 2.06)1.18 (0.53 to 2.644)0.87 (0.47 to 1.61)1.12 (0.72 to 1.75)
Hearing impairment
 OR (95% CI)*1.00 (ref.)1.24 (0.90 to 1.70)1.50 (0.86 to 2.61)1.69 (1.10 to 2.59)1.74 (1.28 to 2.37)
 OR (95% CI)†1.00 (ref.)1.54 (1.06 to 2.24)1.34 (0.71 to 2.53)1.57 (0.95 to 2.58)1.75 (1.23 to 2.50)
Dual sensory impairments
 OR (95% CI)*1.00 (ref.)1.21 (0.89 to 1.66)1.37 (0.80 to 2.36)1.47 (0.97 to 2.25)1.59 (1.18 to 2.15)
 OR (95% CI)†1.00 (ref.)1.45 (1.00 to 2.11)1.22 (0.68 to 2.37)1.32 (0.80 to 2.17)1.55 (1.09 to 2.21)
  • *Adjusted for age and gender.

  • †Adjusted for the age, gender, education, famine severity, smoking, drinking, depressive symptoms, self-reported current health conditions, health status in childhood, hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease and heart diseases.

  • GLM, generalised linear model; ref., reference group.