Table 4

Association between famine exposure and sensory impairments stratified by famine severity

UnexposedFetal-exposedChildhood-exposed
Early childhoodMid childhoodLate childhood
Visual impairment
Severely famine-affected areas
 OR (95% CI)1.00 (ref.)1.60 (0.67 to 3.83)1.14 (0.32 to 4.11)1.23 (0.44 to 3.45)1.61 (0.78 to 3.32)
 Less famine-affected areas
 OR (95% CI)1.00 (ref.)1.13 (0.64 to 2.01)1.27 (0.45 to 3.56)0.68 (0.31 to 1.50)0.88 (0.50 to 1.56)
 P value for interaction term0.5620.2170.9170.759
Hearing impairment
Severely famine-affected areas
 OR (95% CI)1.00 (ref.)1.78 (0.96 to 3.27)2.77 (1.05 to 7.33)2.80 (1.29 to 6.12)2.50 (1.47 to 4.31)
 Less famine-affected areas
 OR (95% CI)1.00 (ref.)1.34 (0.83 to 2.16)0.80 (0.34 to 1.84)1.04 (0.54 to 2.00)1.38 (0.86 to 2.21)
 P value for interaction term0.5010.1460.3720.409
Dual sensory impairments
Severely famine-affected areas
 OR (95% CI)1.00 (ref.)1.56 (0.86 to 2.82)2.75 (1.06 to 7.14)2.72 (1.26 to 5.88)2.17 (1.27 to 3.70)
 Less famine-affected areas
 OR (95% CI)1.00 (ref.)1.32 (0.82 to 2.14)0.72 (0.31 to 1.66)0.79 (0.41 to 1.52)1.23 (0.76 to 1.97)
 P value for interaction term0.7030.2360.3630.471
  • Interaction term: interaction between famine severity and different life stages of famine exposure. Model adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, drinking, depressive symptoms, self-reported current health conditions, health status in childhood, hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease and heart diseases.

  • ref., reference group.