Table 1

Sample characteristics and associations with subjective well-being at 2004/2005 (N=4134)

Characteristicn (%) or
Associations with enjoyment of life effect size, p value*Associations with purpose in life effect size, p value*
CASP enjoyment of life score14.23±1.75 r=0.62, p<0.001
CASP purpose in life score3.59±0.71 r=0.62, p<0.001
Age (years)64.97±8.99 r=−0.05, p=0.003 r=−0.03, p=0.040
Sex (% women)2305 (55.8) d=0.07, p=0.026 d=0.04, p=0.231
Total net financial wealth (£)ɛ2=0.04, p<0.001ɛ2=0.01, p<0.001
Quintile 1603 (14.6)
Quintile 2638 (15.4)
Quintile 3861 (20.8)
Quintile 4977 (23.6)
Quintile 51055 (25.5)
Ethnicity (% white)4094 (99.0) d=0.08, p=0.642 d=0.01, p=0.894
Marital/cohabitation status
(% married or cohabiting)
3023 (73.1) d=0.29, p<0.001 d=0.29, p<0.001
Physical activity per weekɛ2=0.03, p<0.001ɛ2=0.01, p<0.001
Light or none664 (16.1)
Moderate or vigorous 1/week1007 (24.4)
Moderate or vigorous >1/week2463 (59.6)
Smoking (% smokers)564 (13.6) d=0.33, p<0.001 d=0.21, p<0.001
Alcohol consumption
(% <5 days/week)
3097 (74.9) d=0.13, p<0.001 d=0.09, p=0.029
BMI (kg/m2)27.56±4.63 r=−0.03, p=0.043 r=0.01, p=0.409
Hypertension cases (% yes)1698 (41.1) d=0.11, p<0.001 d=0.01, p=0.735
CHD cases (% yes)400 (9.7) d=0.21, p<0.001 d=0.11, p=0.035
HbA1c† (mmol/mol)36.2±2.46 r=−0.05, p=0.004 r=−0.04, p=0.007
Depression casesa (% yes)526 (12.7) d=0.93, p<0.001 d=0.77, p<0.001
  • *Associations were tested with Pearson’s r correlations for continuous variables and independent samples t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis H tests for categorical variables.

  • †HbA1c (mmol/mol) levels equal to 5.46% ±0.44. an =4104.

  • BMI, body mass index; CASP, Control Autonomy Self-realisation Pleasure scale; CHD, coronary heart disease; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; kg/m2, kilograms per square metre; mmol/mol, millimoles per mole; n, number; SD, standard deviation.