Table 1

Significant differences by socio-demographic subgroups

Health behaviourSocio-demographic characteristicFinding
Hand-washingGenderMore men reported complying with hand-washing advice when asked directly than in the list condition, but only when the question was framed positively (89% vs 76%), tpos (241.1)=1.75, p=0.040, d=0.17.
DistancingAgeAmong younger participants (aged under 50 years old), there was a difference between the direct and list conditions when framed both positively (88% vs 74%), t(231.5)=1.61, p=0.054, d=0.16, and negatively (75% vs 64%), t(344.2)=1.40, p=0.082, d=0.12.
Living areaRural participants displayed significant social desirability bias when the distancing question was framed positively (93% vs 81%), t(174.1)=1.64, p=0.051, d=0.19, and negatively (83% vs 63%), t(211.5)=2.27, p=0.012, d=0.24.