Table 1

Demographic characteristics (mean, SD or observations) and the distress variables (mean, SD) for internal workload (n=1715) and external workload (n=1760)

Internal workloadn=1715External workloadn=1760
Mean or numberSD or (%)Mean or numberSD or (%)
Age (in years)43.4710.7044.0610.39
Education level*
Job autonomy2.350.762.320.78
Occupational position†
Psychological fatigue4.251.124.301.08
Physical fatigue3.901.313.961.27
Sleep problems3.660.673.680.654
  • *0=no education, 1–3=mandatory education, 4–5=further vocational education and 6–8=higher education.

  • †1=managerial positions, 2=academic/professional positions (requiring higher education), 3=professions requiring college level of education, 4=office/administrative profession, 5=sales and service professions, 6=farming, fishing, etc, 7=skilled crafts, 8=machine operators and transport workers, and 9=unskilled professions.