Table 2

Association between change in employment protection and pathways out of paid employment among employed persons in good or poor health in 23 European countries of a rotating panel (EU-SILC) between 2003 and 2014

Exit from paid employment
UnemploymentEarly retirementDisabilityEconomic inactivityAll pathways
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Decrease in employment protection of permanent workers
Among workers in good health0.85 (0.42–1.74)2.58 (1.30–5.10)1.15 (0.61–2.16)1.24 (0.72–2.14)1.16 (0.88–1.54)
Among workers in poor health0.99 (0.49–2.03)*4.46 (2.26–8.78)*1.69 (0.98–2.91)1.15 (0.68–1.95)1.52 (1.08–2.13)*
Decrease in employment protection of temporary workers
Among workers in good health1.36 (1.06–1.75)6.15 (3.09–12.22)1.29 (0.80–2.10)1.02 (0.58–1.80)1.56 (1.18–2.06)
Among workers in poor health1.40 (1.08–1.80)6.42 (3.17–13.01)1.39 (0.83–2.31)0.92 (0.49–1.73)1.63 (1.23–2.16)
  • OLS regression models included age, sex, education, GDP and employment protection×health with fixed effects for country and year.

  • *Significant interaction employment protection×health (p < 0.05).

  • See online supplementary table S4 for the value of OR’s for interactions.

  • EU-SILC, European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions; GDP, gross domestic product; OLS, ordinary least squares.