Table 1

Association between individual- and country characteristics and different pathways out of paid employment among employed persons (n=334 999) in 23 European countries of a rotating panel (EU-SILC) between 2003 and 2014

Exit from paid employment
Unemployment
(n=12 829)
Early retirement
(n=3805)
Disability
(n=1920)
Economic inactivity
(n=6670)
All pathways
(n=25 254)
Mean (SD)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Age43.6 (8.2)0.97 (0.97–0.98)1.17 (1.04–1.31)1.04 (1.03–1.06)0.97 (0.95–0.99)1.00 (0.99–1.01)
N (%)
Gender
 Male174 581 (51.1)11111
 Female160 418 (47.9)1.09 (0.98–1.20)1.12 (0.76–1.65)1.07 (0.89–1.27)4.87 (3.81–6.23)1.58 (1.41–1.78)
Education
 High95 070 (28.4)11111
 Intermediate159 441 (47.6)1.76 (1.53–2.01)1.13 (0.96–1.32)1.82 (1.59–2.08)1.28 (1.08–1.51)1.52 (1.41–1.64)
 Low80 488 (24.0)2.70 (2.28–3.20)1.31 (1.01–1.69)2.81 (2.34–3.36)2.18 (1.77–2.67)2.36 (2.14–2.60)
Health
 Good262 243 (78.3)11111
 Poor72 756 (21.7)1.51 (1.40–1.63)1.12 (0.93–1.34)7.17 (5.72–8.99)1.22 (1.12–1.33)1.64 (1.45–1.85)
Mean (sd)
min-max
GDP33.74 (10.40)
16.66–88.30
0.91 (0.88–0.95)0.93 (0.82–1.06)0.98 (0.88–1.10)0.99 (0.93–1.05)0.94 (0.92–0.96)
Employment protection of permanent workers (eprc_v2) (decrease)2.64 (0.51)
1.10–3.98
0.91 (0.44–1.90)3.45 (1.76–6.76)1.55 (0.90–2.66)1.20 (0.70–2.07)1.31 (0.94–1.83)
Employment protection of temporary workers (ept_v1) (decrease)2.18 (0.87)
0.63–4.75
1.37 (1.07–1.76)6.29 (3.17–12.48)1.36 (0.82–2.25)0.99 (0.55–1.78)1.58 (1.20–2.09)
  • OLS regression models included individual characteristics (age, sex, education, health) and country characteristics (GDP and employment protection (eprc-v2 or ept-v1)) with fixed effects for country and year.

  • EU-SILC, European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions; GDP, gross domestic product; OLS, ordinary least squares.