Table 2

Multivariable logistic regression analysis of no recent primary care contact (primary care visit in past year or recent general health check attendance) versus those with contact in CVD-free 40- to 69-year-old females: adjusted ORs for gender/age and gender/age/education/financial constraints

Co-variatesLevelOR (adjusted for age)p ValueOR (adjusted for age/education/financial)p Value
Education level1. Elementary only
2. Intermediary
3. Graduate
Ref
0.60 (0.39;0.91)
0.57 (0.37;0.89)
0.017
0.013
Household financial constraints1. Constrained
2. Intermediary
3. Relatively unconstrained
Ref
0.70 (0.50;0.99)
0.76 (0.52;1.11)
0.048
0.157
Single0. No
1. Yes
Ref
0.97 (0.74;1.28)
0.835Ref
0.95 (0.71;1.27)
0.738
Smoking status1. Never smoker
2. Ex-smoker
3. Current smoker
Ref
0.93 (0.63;1.37)
1.73 (1.24;2.41)
0.721
0.001
Ref
0.92 (0.62;1.36)
1.67 (1.18;2.36)
0.666
0.004
Alcohol use disorder level1. Non-drinker past year
2. Low (AUDIT score <8)
3. High (AUDIT score 8+)
Ref
1.00 (0.64;1.58)
1.81 (0.79;4.12)
0.988
0.158
Ref
1.00 (0.64;1.60)
1.72 (0.75;3.94)
0.971
0.202
Alcohol intake1. Non-drinker
2. <2.5 g/day
3. 2.5–6.9 g/day
4. 7–14.9 g/day
5. 15–20.9 g/day
6. 21+g/day
Ref
1.02 (0.64;1.61)
0.95 (0.57;1.60)
1.16 (0.59;2.30)
1.06 (0.37;3.10)
1.79 (0.67;4.78)
0.947
0.852
0.662
0.911
0.245
Ref
1.03 (0.65;1.65)
0.94 (0.55;1.60)
1.14 (0.57;2.30)
1.04 (0.35;3.05)
1.81 (0.67;4.88)
0.890
0.822
0.707
0.946
0.239
Physical activity0. Inactive
1. Moderately inactive
2. Moderately active
3. Active
Ref
1.44 (0.75;2.75)
1.21 (0.70;2.09)
1.25 (0.70;2.24)
0.277
0.500
0.443
Ref
1.37 (0.70;2.68)
1.14 (0.65;2.02)
1.13 (0.62;2.09)
0.356
0.645
0.689
BMI category1. Normal/underweight (<25 kg/m2)
2. Overweight (25–29 kg/m2)
3. Obese (30+ kg/m2)
Ref
0.84 (0.60;1.18)
1.04 (0.75;1.44)
0.308
0.837
Ref
0.79 (0.55;1.12)
0.99 (0.71;1.39)
0.184
0.950
Self-rated general health Very good-Excellent0. Poor/Fair/Good
1. Very good/Excellent
Ref
1.48 (1.13;1.95)
0.005Ref
1.63 (1.23;2.16)
0.001
Chest pain1. No chest pain
2. Non-anginal chest pain
3. Grade 1 angina
4. Grade 2 angina
Ref
0.63 (0.45;0.88)
0.85 (0.56;1.28)
0.22 (0.05;0.94)
0.006
0.442
0.041
Ref
0.64 (0.45;0.90)
0.87 (0.57;1.32)
0.23 (0.05;0.95)
0.009
0.503
0.043
CVD risk score1. <1%
2. 1–4.9%
3. 5+%
Ref
1.05 (0.65;1.69)
2.58 (1.27;5.23)
0.852
0.009
Ref
1.08 (0.66;1.76)
2.49 (1.20;5.16)
0.766
0.014
Hypertension1. Normotensive
2. Controlled hypertension
3. Uncontrolled hypertension
4. Untreated hypertension
Ref
0.39 (0.24;0.62)
0.87 (0.57;1.31)
1.51 (1.04;2.19)
<0.001
0.503
0.029
Ref
0.38 (0.24;0.62)
0.80 (0.52;1.24)
1.49 (1.02;2.19)
<0.001
0.320
0.039
Hypertension awareness0. No
1. Yes
Ref
0.58 (0.43;0.79)
<0.001Ref
0.54 (0.40;0.74)
<0.001
Diabetic*0. Not diabetic
1. Diabetic
Ref
0.74 (0.44;1.27)
0.248Ref
0.75 (0.45;1.27)
0.292
Chronic kidney disease status0. Normal
1. Reduced filtration rate
Ref
1.84 (1.00;3.39)
0.049Ref
1.77 (0.94;3.32)
0.075
Care-intensive diseases†0. No
1. Yes
Ref
0.57 (0.43;0.76)
<0.001Ref
0.57 (0.43;0.76)
<0.001
  • *Diabetic defined as self-reported disease, medication, or elevated HbA1c.

  • †Care-intensive conditions included CKD, chronic bronchitis, cancer, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, migraine, opioid analgesics use.

  • AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c.