Table 1

Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, mental health and well-being, and neighbourhood perceptions. Control and East Village groups overall and by housing group

All housing groups (n=877)Social (n=344)Intermediate (n=377)Market rent (n=156)
ControlEast VillageControlEast VillageControlEast VillageControlEast Village
N (%)n (%)p-valuen (%)n (%)p-valuen (%)n (%)p-valuen (%)n (%)p-value
Age group
16–2475 (17%)104 (24%)0.0118 (15%)47 (21%)0.2730 (15%)38 (22%)<0.00127 (25%)19 (40%)0.07
25–34185 (42%)194 (44%)32 (26%)61 (28%)100 (49%)113 (65%)53 (49%)20 (43%)
35–49138 (32%)123 (28%)66 (53%)95 (43%)61 (30%)22 (13%)11 (10%)6 (13%)
50+38 (9%)20 (5%)8 (6%)17 (8%)12 (6%)1 (1%)18 (17%)2 (4%)
Sex: Female248 (57%)247 (56%)0.7991 (73%)158 (72%)0.75107 (53%)70 (40%)0.0250 (46%)19 (40%)0.53
Ethnic group
White225 (52%)212 (48%)<0.00125 (20%)38 (17%)<0.001122 (60%)139 (80%)<0.00178 (72%)35 (74%)0.42
Black91 (21%)56 (13%)47 (38%)31 (14%)35 (17%)18 (10%)9 (8%)7 (15%)
Asian81 (19%)131 (30%)40 (32%)120 (55%)32 (16%)9 (5%)9 (8%)2 (4%)
Other39 (9%)42 (10%)12 (10%)31 (14%)14 (7%)8 (5%)13 (12%)3 (6%)
Household composition
1 person34 (8%)30 (7%)0.205 (4%)14 (6%)0.2217 (8%)9 (5%)0.4512 (11%)7 (15%)0.88
2 people147 (34%)127 (29%)20 (16%)33 (15%)82 (40%)76 (44%)45 (41%)18 (38%)
3 people97 (22%)94 (21%)16 (13%)45 (20%)52 (26%)38 (22%)29 (27%)11 (23%)
4 or more people158 (36%)190 (43%)83 (67%)128 (58%)52 (26%)51 (29%)23 (21%)11 (23%)
Living with partner
Yes210 (48%)186 (42%)0.0260 (48%)84 (38%)0.17101 (50%)82 (47%)0.7849 (45%)20 (42%)0.17
No205 (47%)215 (49%)50 (40%)103 (47%)96 (47%)88 (50%)59 (54%)24 (51%)
Unknown21 (5%)40 (9%)14 (11%)33 (15%)6 (3%)4 (2%)1 (1%)3 (6%)
Living with children: Yes172 (39%)203 (46%)0.05109 (88%)178 (81%)0.0952 (26%)21 (12%)<0.00111 (10%)4 (9%)0.76
Education
Degree or equivalent/Higher287 (66%)249 (56%)0.0134 (28%)55 (25%)0.60166 (82%)154 (88%)0.1887 (80%)40 (84%)0.39
Intermediate qualification102 (24%)137 (31%)59 (48%)118 (54%)26 (13%)15 (9%)17 (16%)4 (8%)
Other/None45 (10%)55 (12%)30 (24%)47 (21%)11 (5%)5 (3%)4 (4%)3 (6%)
Employment status
Employed347 (80%)307 (70%)0.00467 (54%)98 (45%)0.18183 (90%)169 (97%)0.0297 (89%)40 (84%)0.51
Unemployed22 (5%)36 (8%)12 (10%)33 (15%)4 (2%)1 (1%)6 (5%)2 (4%)
Economically inactive67 (15%)97 (22%)45 (36%)88 (40%)16 (8%)4 (2%)6 (5%)5 (11%)
NS-SEC
Higher managerial/professional246 (57%)179 (41%)<0.00124 (20%)23 (11%)0.12146 (73%)124 (72%)0.0176 (70%)32 (68%)0.53
Intermediate occupations54 (12%)69 (16%)16 (13%)27 (12%)22 (11%)34 (20%)16 (15%)8 (17%)
Routine/manual occupations44 (10%)56 (13%)26 (21%)46 (21%)13 (6%)10 (6%)5 (5%)0 (0%)
Unemployed/econ inactive89 (21%)133 (30%)57 (46%)121 (56%)20 (10%)5 (3%)12 (11%)7 (15%)
Limiting longstanding illness 59 (14%)58 (13%)0.8728 (23%)49 (22%)0.9523 (11%)6 (3%)0.0048 (7%)3 (6%)1.00
Built environment (mean (sd))*
Distance to closest park666 (410)659 (397)0.80597 (339)622 (360)0.52712 (445)696 (395)0.72665 (415)713 (567)0.59
Public transport accessibility4.6 (1.8)4.6 (1.9)0.924.5 (1.9)4.1 (1.8)0.034.5 (1.8)5.1 (1.9)0.0034.8 (1.8)5.2 (2.0)0.27
Walkability0.1 (2.5)−0.1 (2.7)0.320.0 (1.9)−0.6 (2.1)0.020.1 (2.7)0.4 (2.7)0.300.4 (2.8)0.8 (4.6)0.51
Neighbourhood perceptions (mean (sd))†
Safety2.5 (4.2)1.6 (4.6)0.0020.9 (4.7)0.3 (4.5)0.253.2 (3.8)2.7 (4.1)0.213.2 (3.8)3.7 (4.4)0.47
Quality4.5 (4.5)2.6 (4.4)<0.0013.4 (4.5)1.7 (4.5)<0.0014.7 (4.5)3.6 (4.3)0.015.1 (4.3)3.4 (3.8)0.02
Mental health and well-being (median, IQR)‡
Depression3.5 (1.2, 5.8)3.5 (1.2, 5.8)0.914.7 (2.3, 7.0)4.7 (2.3, 7.0)0.563.5 (1.2, 5.8)3.5 (1.2, 4.7)0.322.3 (1.2, 4.7)2.3 (1.2, 3.5)0.31
Anxiety6.0 (4.0, 8.2)6.0 (3.0, 8.0)0.477.0 (4.0, 9.3)5.0 (3.0, 8.0)0.025.0 (3.0, 8.0)6.0 (4.0, 9.0)0.037.0 (4.0, 9.0)5.0 (3.0, 8.0)0.19
Life satisfaction7.0 (7.0, 8.0)7.0 (6.0, 8.0)0.627.0 (5.0, 9.0)7.0 (6.0, 9.0)0.297.0 (7.0, 8.0)7.0 (6.0, 8.0)0.467.0 (7.0, 8.0)7.0 (7.0, 8.0)0.45
Feeling life is worthwhile8.0 (7.0, 9.0)8.0 (7.0, 9.0)0.238.0 (6.0, 9.0)8.0 (7.0, 10.0)0.088.0 (7.0, 9.0)8.0 (7.0, 9.0)0.478.0 (7.0, 8.0)8.0 (7.0, 9.0)0.78
Feeling happy yesterday8.0 (6.0, 9.0)8.0 (6.0, 9.0)0.468.0 (6.0, 9.0)8.0 (6.0, 9.0)0.738.0 (7.0, 9.0)7.5 (6.0, 8.0)0.067.0 (6.0, 8.0)7.0 (6.0, 9.0)0.60
  • *Built environment variables were available for those living in the Greater London area at baseline: 406 in the Control group and 414 in the East Village group. Distance to closest park from choice of local, district and metropolitan parks. PTAL is a Transport for London (TfL) score assessing the availability of public transport options where a high score indicates good public transport links. Walkability is the sum of three z-transformed variables—land use mix, residential density and street connectivity.

  • †Neighbourhood perception scores were available for 436 and 441 for Control and East Village participants respectively. The safety scale is scored −10 to +10, where higher scores indicate less perceived crime. The Quality scale is scored −12 to +12, where higher scores indicate higher perceived quality.

  • ‡Mental health outcomes were available for 416, 424 for depression; 431, 435 for anxiety; and 432, 441 life satisfaction, life is worthwhile, feeling happy yesterday for control and East Village participants respectively. Depression and anxiety are scored 0–21 where higher scores indicate higher depression or anxiety. Life satisfaction, feeling life is worthwhile and feeling happy yesterday are scores 1–10 where higher scores indicate greater levels.