Table 3

Adjusted associations between all-cause and CVD mortality and measures of population density change and greenspace

All-cause mortalityCVD mortality
Incident rate ratio (95% CI), p value
Population density decile 2000–2008
 Stable (reference)
 ≥1 decile increase0.911 (0.871 to 0.953), p<0.0010.889 (0.839 to 0.941), p<0.001
 ≥1 decile decrease1.030 (0.961 to 1.104), p=0.4061.056 (0.967 to 1.153), p=0.226
Greenspace indicators
 Green urban percentage0.998 (0.996 to 1.000), p=0.0360.998 (0.995 to 1.000), p=0.021
 Urban park percentage1.000 (0.997 to 1.002), p=0.8721.001 (0.998 to 1.004), p=0.631
 Rural green percentage0.997 (0.996 to 0.999), p<0.0010.998 (0.996 to 0.999), p=0.006
  • Models adjusted for year, gender, age group, mean disposable income, foreign born percentage, higher education percentage and parish population density mean. Dense urban percentage is not included here because its value for each parish obtains from a linear combination of the remaining three land use indicators.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease.