Table 1

Descriptive statistics of participants

Characteristicn (%)
Total children1029 (100)
School type
 Intermediate485 (47.1)
 Primary544 (52.9)
School decile*
 Low (most deprived 1–3)270 (26.2)
 Mid (4–7)242 (23.5)
 High (least deprived 8–10)517 (50.3)
Neighbourhood deprivation*
 Least deprived (1–3)418 (40.6)
 Mid (4–7)394 (38.3)
 Most deprived (*, 9,10)209 (20.3)
Sex
 Male505 (49.1)
 Female529 (50.9)
Ethnicity
 Māori120 (11.7)
 Pacific peoples141 (13.7)
 Asian138 (13.4)
 Middle Eastern/
 Latin American/
 African
24 (2.3)
 Other4 (0.4)
 NZ European/other
 European
435 (42.3)
 Not stated167 (16.2)
 Body size outcome variable
Waist-to-height ratio
 <0.5860 (83.6)
 >0.51169 (16.4)
  • *School decile ratings in NZ are inverse to NZDep2013 ratings (1=low, 10=high) indicating the extent to which the school draws its students from low socioeconomic communities.39 This means a decile 1 school comes from 10% of schools in NZ with the highest proportion of students from highly deprived communities. Conversely, a decile 10 school comes from 10% of schools with the lowest proportion of these students. School deciles are used predominantly for government allocation of funding and cannot be used as a sole indicator of area level deprivation, thus NZDep2013 was also used.

  • NZ, New Zealand; NZDep2013, New Zealand Index of Deprivation.