Table 1

Characteristics of participants and their rank-order correlations with ageing biomarkers and mortality (n=758)

CharacteristicsMean (SD) or number (%)Correlation with leucocyte telomere lengthCorrelation with accelerated DNA methylation GrimAgeCorrelation with brain-PADCorrelation with death during follow-up
Age in years, mean (SD)72.5 (0.71)0.075 (p=0.039)0.028 (p=0.463)0.016 (p=0.695)−0.046 (p=0.205)
Female, number (%)364 (48.0)−0.128 (p=0.004)−0.459 (p<0.001)−0.300 (p<0.001)−0.111 (p=0.002)
Number of years in education, mean (SD)10.8 (1.14)−0.037 (p=0.312)−0.131 (p=0.001)0.012 (p=0.770)−0.041 (p=0.268)
Non-manual social class,* number (%)595 (78.5)0.027 (p=0.464)0.185 (p<0.001)0.035 (p=0.385)0.139 (p=0.0001)
Number of chronic diseases, mean (SD)1.55 (1.09)0.046 (p=0.208)0.113 (p=0.002)0.079 (p=0.045)0.126 (p=0.001)
HADS-A score, mean (SD)4.49 (3.10)−0.007 (p=0.842)−0.114 (p=0.002)−0.103 (p=0.011)−0.001 (p=0.978)
HADS-D score, mean (SD)2.51 (2.07)−0.014 (p=0.704)0.086 (p=0.021)0.086 (p=0.032)0.104 (p=0.004)
Smoking status−0.018 (p=0.614)0.477 (p<0.001)0.098 (p=0.014)0.191 (p<0.001)
Never smoked, number (%)372 (49.1)
Ex-smoker, number (%)326 (43.0)
Current smoker, number (%)60 (7.92)
Number of days alcohol is consumed per week, mean (SD)2.70 (2.68)0.015 (p=0.672)0.133 (p=0.004)0.130 (p=0.001)−0.031 (p=0.397)
Time taken to walk 6 metres, mean (SD)4.27 (1.10)−0.025 (p=0.486)0.090 (p=0.016)0.033 (p=0.407)0.128 (p=0.004)
Attitudes to ageing
Physical change, mean (SD)28.0 (5.11)−0.023 (p=0.525)−0.178 (p<0.001)−0.123 (p=0.002)−0.206 (p<0.001)
Psychosocial loss, mean (SD)15.2 (4.79)0.003 (p=0.938)0.085 (p=0.023)0.012 (p=0.628)0.126 (p=0.005)
Psychological growth, mean (SD)28.3 (4.33)−0.005 (p=0.890)−0.033 (p=0.386)−0.023 (p=0.567)−0.067 (p=0.065)
Brain-PAD, mean (SD)1.38 (8.43)0.038 (p=0.349)0.198 (p<0.001)0.142 (p=0.001)
Telomere length, mean (SD)3971.41 (733.0)0.046 (p=0.227)0.038 (p=0.349)0.0001 (p=0.998)
Accelerated DNA methylation GrimAge, mean (SD)−0.28 (4.75)0.046 (p=0.227)0.198 (p<0.001)0.209 (p<0.001)
Died during follow-up, number (%)147 (19.4)0.0001 (p=0.998)0.209 (p<0.001)0.142 (p=0.001)
  • *Correlations with social class are based on the six-category occupational social class variable.

  • Brain-PAD, brain-predicted age difference; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; HADS-A, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, anxiety score; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, depression score.