Table 3

Crude and adjusted associations between mother’s country of birth and neonatal death, infant death, preterm birth and birth weight, pooled across ethnic groups and stratified by ethnic group

Ethnicity of infant and mother’s country or region of birthNeonatal death, RR (95% CI)Infant death, RR (95% CI)Preterm birth, RR (95% CI)Birth weight difference, g (95% CI) *
CrudeAdjusted†CrudeAdjusted†CrudeAdjusted†CrudeAdjusted†
Pooled analysis
All ethnic groups‡
 UK11111100
 Region of ethnic origin 1.32 (1.25 to 1.39) 0.91 (0.83 to 0.997) 1.33 (1.27 to 1.39) 0.91 (0.85 to 0.98) 0.96 (0.95 to 0.97) 0.89 (0.88 to 0.91) -78 (-79 to -77) 25 (23 to 27)
 Elsewhere1.00 (0.90 to 1.11)0.98 (0.88 to 1.10)0.96 (0.88 to 1.05)0.97 (0.89 to 1.07) 0.84 (0.82 to 0.86) 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88) -3 (-5 to -1) 6 (4 to 8)
Stratified analysis
White British
 UK11111100
 Elsewhere 0.86 (0.74 to 0.995)0.95 (0.82 to 1.10) 0.84 (0.75 to 0.94)0.96 (0.85 to 1.08) 0.81 (0.79 to 0.83) 0.86 (0.84 to 0.88) 25 (23 to 28) -3 (-5 to -0.3)
White (other)
 UK11111100
 Region of ethnic origin0.85 (0.69 to 1.04)0.85 (0.69 to 1.05)0.85 (0.72 to 1.00)0.86 (0.73 to 1.02) 0.85 (0.82 to 0.88) 0.90 (0.87 to 0.94) 22 (19 to 26) 21 (18 to 25)
 Elsewhere0.80 (0.56 to 1.14)0.88 (0.61 to 1.27)0.79 (0.59 to 1.06)0.89 (0.66 to 1.19) 0.74 (0.69 to 0.79) 0.82 (0.77 to 0.88) 28 (22 to 34) 6 (1 to 12)
Indian
 UK11111100
 Country of ethnic origin0.88 (0.69 to 1.12)0.85 (0.66 to 1.09)0.91 (0.74 to 1.11)0.89 (0.73 to 1.09) 0.90 (0.85 to 0.94) 0.91 (0.87 to 0.96) 37 (33 to 42) 42 (38 to 47)
 Elsewhere1.15 (0.82 to 1.61)1.08 (0.77 to 1.52)1.31 (1.00 to 1.71)1.24 (0.94 to 1.62)0.97 (0.90 to 1.04)0.93 (0.87 to 1.001) 36 (29 to 44) 41 (34 to 48)
Pakistani
 UK11111100
 Country of ethnic origin 0.86 (0.74 to 0.99) 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98) 0.86 (0.77 to 0.97) 0.84 (0.75 to 0.94) 0.85 (0.82 to 0.89) 0.85 (0.82 to 0.88) 27 (24 to 31) 23 (19 to 27)
 Elsewhere0.85 (0.58 to 1.27)0.88 (0.59 to 1.30)0.80 (0.58 to 1.08)0.81 (0.60 to 1.11) 0.90 (0.81 to 0.989) 0.90 (0.82 to 0.991) 35 (25 to 45) 29 (19 to 38)
Bangladeshi
 UK11111100
 Country of ethnic origin0.97 (0.67 to 1.39)0.97 (0.68 to 1.40)0.95 (0.72 to 1.26)0.91 (0.68 to 1.21)0.97 (0.90 to 1.04)0.95 (0.88 to 1.02) 63 (55 to 70) 50 (42 to 57)
 Elsewhere0.97 (0.41 to 2.29)1.03 (0.43 to 2.46)0.88 (0.44 to 1.76)0.89 (0.44 to 1.79)0.92 (0.77 to 1.10)0.87 (0.73 to 1.04) 114 (96 to 132) 96 (78 to 114)
Black Caribbean
 UK11111100
 Region of ethnic origin1.03 (0.75 to 1.42)1.05 (0.76 to 1.45)0.84 (0.65 to 1.10)0.87 (0.66 to 1.13)0.96 (0.90 to 1.02)0.95 (0.89 to 1.02) 83 (74 to 91) 67 (59 to 75)
 Elsewhere 1.67 (1.04 to 2.68) 1.71 (1.06 to 2.76)1.17 (0.76 to 1.80)1.24 (0.80 to 1.91) 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97)0.90 (0.79 to 1.03) 100 (85 to 115) 71 (56 to 86)
Black African
 UK11111100
 Region of ethnic origin1.12 (0.79 to 1.59)1.16 (0.81 to 1.66)1.15 (0.87 to 1.53)1.21 (0.90 to 1.61) 0.91 (0.84 to 0.97)0.99 (0.92 to 1.07) 31 (23 to 39) 45 (36 to 53)
 Elsewhere1.12 (0.65 to 1.94)1.16 (0.67 to 2.02)1.08 (0.69 to 1.71)1.14 (0.72 to 1.80) 0.84 (0.75 to 0.96)0.92 (0.81 to 1.04) 37 (23 to 50) 37 (24 to 50)
  • Bold text highlights estimates whose CI exclude no difference with the comparison group.

  • *All differences are gestational age-adjusted.

  • †Adjusted for maternal age (including quadratic term for departure from linearity), birth registration type, year of birth, sex of baby, IMD decile and additionally for Black African babies, whether mother’s country of birth was classified as a fragile state based on the World Bank ‘Low-income countries under stress’ and ‘fragile situation’ classifications.

  • ‡Except ‘mixed/other’ and ethnicity ‘not stated’ because it was not possible to correctly classify countries or regions of birth for non UK-born mothers.