Table 4

Death of a child between ages 1 and 24 years in relation to the number of liveborn siblings preceding the birth of the current child

Number of preceding liveborn siblingsNumber of deaths
(incidence rate per 100 000 person-years)
HR (95% CI)
UnadjustedAdjusted*†
Death due to any cause0 (n=1 542 071)3490 (16.5)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
1 (n=1 101 167)2353 (16.7)1.05 (1.00 to 1.11)1.16 (1.10 to 1.23)
2 (n=349 689)699 (17.5)1.17 (1.08 to 1.27)1.34 (1.23 to 1.45)
3+ (n=139 365)329 (23.9)1.68 (1.50 to 1.89)1.96 (1.74 to 2.21)
Death due to non-injury0 (n=1 542 071)1727 (8.2)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
1 (n=1 101 167)1104 (7.8)0.95 (0.88 to 1.03)1.08 (1.00 to 1.17)
2 (n=349 689)339 (8.5)1.03 (0.91 to 1.15)1.22 (1.08 to 1.37)
3+ (n=139 365)151 (11.0)1.30 (1.10 to 1.54)1.62 (1.36 to 1.92)
Death due to injury0 (n=1 542 071)1111 (5.3)1.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
1 (n=1 101 167)837 (5.9)1.20 (1.10 to 1.31)1.39 (1.27 to 1.52)
2 (n=349 689)219 (5.5)1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)1.60 (1.38 to 1.86)
3+ (n=139 365)105 (7.6)1.96 (1.59 to 2.42)2.77 (2.23 to 3.45)
  • Shown are deaths from any cause (upper), non-injury causes (middle) and injury causes (lower).

  • *Adjusted for maternal world region of origin, age at the child’s birth and the child’s year of birth, sex, preterm birth <37 weeks’ gestation, a congenital or chromosomal anomaly diagnosed before age 1 year and time-varying residential income quintile and rurality.

  • †7406 participants had missing information about the number of preceding liveborn siblings. Their corresponding adjusted HRs were 2.47 (95% CI 1.90 to 3.21) for death due to any cause, 3.70 (95% CI 2.73 to 5.02) for death due to non-injury and 1.50 (95% CI 0.81 to 2.78) for death due to injury.