Table 3

Multilevel logistic regression estimates (coefficients (95% CI)) of women’s community-level colocations of their male intimate partner physical violence (MIPPV) experiences in the past year (Bangladesh violence against women survey 2015; weighted n=32 697 808; unweighted n=14 557, community n=911)

Residential community characteristicsModel 7Model 8Model 9Model 10Model 11Model 12Model 13
A. Higher proportions of women are younger than 30 years of age−0.05
(−0.25 to 0.16)
0.01
(−0.20 to 0.22)
0.04
(−0.18 to 0.25)
0.02
(−0.21 to 0.24)
B. Higher proportions of women have below fifth grade of education−0.04
(−0.29 to 0.20)
0.13
(−0.12 to 0.38)
0.00
(−0.25 to 0.25)
0.07
(−0.20 to 0.34)
C. Higher proportions of women earn an income0.13
(−0.13 to 0.39)
0.28*
(0.02 to 0.54)
0.22†
(−0.04 to 0.49)
0.38**
(0.10 to 0.67)
D. Higher proportions of women live in poverty0.10
(−0.17 to 0.36)
0.06
(−0.19 to 0.31)
0.14
(−0.11 to 0.39)
0.19
(−0.11 to 0.48)
1. Younger, lower educated communities
(A × B)
0.25
(−0.45,.94)
0.47
(−0.17 to 1.10)
2. Younger, higher earning participation communities (A × C)−0.16
(−0.74 to 0.42)
−0.21
(−0.78 to 0.36)
3. Younger, poorer communities (A × D)−0.27
(−0.78 to 0.25)
−0.27
(−0.78 to 0.24)
4. Lower education, higher earning participation communities (B × C)−0.78**
(−1.37 to −0.20)
−0.71*
(−1.30 to −0.11)
5. Lower education, poor communities
(B × D)
−0.07
(−0.64 to 0.50)
0.01
(−0.57 to 0.58)
6. Higher earning participation, poor communities (C × D)−0.65*
(−1.22 to −0.10)
−0.46
(−1.02 to 0.10)
Random effects, between community variance (SE)0.65
(0.53 to 0.79)
0.64
(0.52 to 0.79)
0.64
(0.52 to 0.79)
0.63
(0.52 to 0.78)
0.65
(0.53 to 0.79)
0.63
(0.52 to 0.78)
0.62
(0.51 to 0.77)
Intraclass correlation (SE)0.16
(0.01)
0.16
(0.01)
0.16
(0.01)
0.16
(0.01)
0.16
(0.01)
0.16
(0.01)
0.16
(0.01)
Akaike Information Criterion21 500 00021 500 00021 500 00021 500 00021 500 00021 500 00021 400 000
  • 1. Texts in brackets indicate the two-way interaction between letter-numbered community-level variables.

  • 2. All models have been adjusted for women’s individual-level younger age, lower level of education, earning an income, living in poverty, religion, rural location and their husband’s younger age and lower level of education variables.

  • *P<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †P<0.10.