Table 2

Incidence and HRs of dementia by level of community engagement

n=9550; 75 789 person-years
Dementia cases: 429
No (cases/censored)Person-yearsHRs (95% CI)P for trend
Model 1
Community cultural engagement
 Less than once a year292/52648.0 (7.1–9.0)1 (Ref) <0.001
 Once or two times per year75/23584.1 (3.3–5.2) 0.65 (0.50 to 0.84)
 Every few months or more58/26222.7 (2.1–3.6) 0.46 (0.34 to 0.61)
Community group engagement
 Less than once a year307/70646.1 (5.5–6.9)1 (Ref)0.56
 Once or two times per year45/11125.1 (3.8–6.9)0.88 (0.65 to 1.20)
 Every few months or more72/20684.3 (3.4–5.4)0.95 (0.72 to 1.24)
Model 2
Community cultural engagement
 Less than once a year1 (Ref) <0.001
 Once or two times per year 0.66 (0.50 to 0.86)
 Every few months or more 0.47 (0.34 to 0.63)
Community group engagement
 Less than once a year1 (Ref)0.61
 Once or two times per year0.90 (0.65 to 1.23)
 Every few months or more0.95 (0.72 to 1.25)
Model 3
Community cultural engagement
 Less than once a year1 (Ref) <0.001
 Once or two times per year 0.71 (0.54 to 0.94)
 Every few months or more 0.53 (0.38 to 0.73)
Community group engagement
 Less than once a year1 (Ref)0.87
 Once or two times per year0.95 (0.68 to 1.31)
 Every few months or more0.99 (0.75 to 1.30)
Model 4
Community cultural engagement
 Less than once a year1 (Ref) <0.001
 Once or two times per year0.77 (0.59 to 1.02)
 Every few months or more 0.57 (0.41 to 0.80)
Community group engagement
 Less than once a year1 (Ref)0.70
 Once or two times per year1.05 (0.76 to 1.47)
 Every few months or more1.05 (0.79 to 1.41)
  • Community cultural engagement and group engagement were entered simultaneously into the models so are mutually adjusted. Model 1 unadjusted. Model 2 adjusted for demographic covariates (age, sex, educational attainment, wealth, employment status). Model 3 additionally adjusted for health covariates (depression, eyesight, hearing, cardiovascular conditions, physical activity). Model 4 additionally adjusted for social covariates (marital status, living status, social contact, social network size, perceived loneliness, perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support).