Table 1

Demographic characteristics of the sample

Mean (SD)/%Develops dementia (n=429)Did not develop dementia within study period (n=9121)P value
Age65.2 (9.2)74.2 (8.2)64.8 (9.0) <0.001
Gender, female45.7%40.3%46.0%0.022
Educational attainment <0.001
 No qualification39.7%55.0%39.0%
 Education to age 1617.8%14.0%17.9%
 Education to age 1828.5%22.1%28.8%
Working full-time/part-time36.6%8.2%38.0% <0.001
Wealth (bottom quintile)19.6%28.2%19.1% <0.001
Depressive symptoms score1.54 (1.96)2.16 (2.18)1.51 (1.94) <0.001
Poor eyesight3.1%6.5%3.0% <0.001
Poor hearing4.6%10.3%4.3% <0.001
Cardiovascular condition40.7%43.8%40.6%0.18
Low levels of physical activity8.2%19.8%7.7% <0.001
Social factors
Married/living with partner69.2%57.8%69.7% <0.001
Living alone25.0%33.1%24.6% <0.001
Social contact <0.001
 Less than once a month17.3%26.8%16.9%
 Once or two times per month14.3%13.1%14.3%
 Once or two times per week or more68.4%60.1%68.8%
Lonely much of the time in past week13.3%21.9%12.9% <0.001
Number of close friends <0.001
Positive social support (score denoting the highest possible positive social support)19.9%14.2%20.2%0.002
Negative social support (score denoting the highest possible negative social support)19.1%30.8%18.6% <0.001
Community engagement
Community cultural engagement <0.001
 Less than once a year50.9%66.7%50.1%
 Once or two times per year23.1%18.4%23.3%
 Every few months or more26.1%14.9%26.6%
Community group engagement0.37
 Less than once a year68.1%70.9%68.0%
 Once or two times per year11.1%11.0%11.1%
 Every few months or more20.8%18.2%20.9%