Table 2

Equality of opportunity and mortality

β (CI 95%)Change in death rate from 1 SD change in equality of opportunity, %Change in death rate from complete absence of equality of opportunity to full equality of opportunity, %R2
Achievement of bottom quartile
Total death rate
 M1: Unadjusted0.20* (−0.34 to 0.06)−1.08−9.420.01
 M2: Adjusted0.22* (−0.35 to 0.10)−1.23−10.60.09
Females
 M3: Unadjusted−0.08 (−0.22 to 0.07)−0.42−3.770.01
 M4: Adjusted0.16* (−0.27 to 0.04)−0.86−7.540.22
Males
 M5: Unadjusted0.24* (−0.40 to 0.09)−1.32−11.40.01
 M6: Adjusted0.25* (−0.39 to 0.11)−1.38−11.90.07
Achievement of top quartile
Total death rate
 M1: Unadjusted0.16 (−0.025 to 0.352)0.91−8.520.01
 M2: Adjusted0.18† (0.007 to 0.352)0.99−9.380.08
Females
 M3: Unadjusted0.07 (−0.102 to 0.244)0.39−3.610.01
 M4: Adjusted0.10 (−0.039 to 0.246)0.57−5.310.21
Males
 M5: Unadjusted0.18 (−0.036 to 0.400)1.01−9.540.01
 M6: Adjusted0.21† (0.005 to 0.408)1.14−10.90.06
Correlation of parental andchildachievement
Total death rate
 M1: Unadjusted0.09† (0.01 to 0.17)0.98−9.110.01
 M2: Adjusted0.10* (0.02 to 0.18)1.13−10.50.09
Females
 M3: Unadjusted0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10)0.31−2.810.01
 M4: Adjusted0.06† (0.01 to 0.13)0.74−6.760.22
Males
 M5: Unadjusted0.11* (0.01 to 0.20)1.21−11.30.01
 M6: Adjusted0.11* (0.03 to 0.20)1.30−12.20.06
  • Total number of observations is 1200. CIs are computed using heteroskedasticity-robust SEs corrected for clustering at the age group-year level. Regressions are population weighted. Regressors from ESS are additionally design-weighted. Unadjusted estimates include year, age group and country fixed effects. Adjusted estimates additionally include all controls described in Methods section and in table 1. Respective absence of equality of opportunity is defined as a mean achievement of 12.5 of those coming from the bottom quartile, or a mean achievement of 87.5 of those coming from the top quartile, or a correlation of 1 between achievement in parental generation and achievement in children’s generation. Respective full equality of opportunity is defined as a mean achievement of 50 of those in the bottom quartile, or a mean attainment of 50 of those coming from the top quartile, or a correlation of 0 between attainment in parental generation and attainment in children’s generation. Reported R2 are 'within' R2. Significant associations (uncorrected, at 5% level) are shown in bold.

  • Analyses were conducted using the REGHDFE Stata package.42

  • *Significant at table-wide false discovery rate of 5% (using Benjamini-Hochberg method).

  • †Significant at a table-wide false discovery rate of 10%.

  • ESS, European Social Survey.