Table 2

The associations of housing affordability with physical component summary and mental component summary

CharacteristicsPhysical component summaryMental component summary
β coefficient (95% CI)*P valueβ coefficient (95% CI)*P value
Housing affordability
 Posthousing residual income
 Fourth quartile (highest housing affordability)Ref.Ref.
 Third quartile−0.64 (−1.80 to 0.51)0.275−1.28 (−2.40 to −0.17)0.024
 Second quartile−2.23 (−3.54 to −0.92)0.001−2.35 (−3.59 to −1.11)<0.001
 First quartile (lowest housing affordability)−2.53 (−4.05 to −1.01)0.001−3.87 (−5.30 to −2.45)<0.001
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age (per year increase)−0.13 (−0.17 to −0.10)<0.001−0.10 (−0.13 to −0.07)<0.001
 Sex
 MaleRef.Ref.
 Female1.55 (0.67 to 2.44)0.001−0.69 (−1.53 to 0.15)0.108
 Marital status
 Married/cohabitRef.Ref.
 Single/divorced/separated/widowed−1.24 (−2.13 to −0.34)0.007−1.53 (−2.39 to −0.67)<0.001
Socioeconomic factors
 Educational level
 Tertiary or aboveRef.Ref.
 Secondary1.18 (−0.08 to 2.44)0.0660.41 (−0.79 to 1.61)0.506
 Primary or below0.84 (−0.74 to 2.42)0.299−0.11 (−1.62 to 1.40)0.887
 Housing type
 Public rental housingRef.Ref.
 Public ownership housing−0.55 (−1.70 to 0.60)0.3460.02 (−1.08 to 1.12)0.974
 Private rental housing0.19 (−1.20 to 1.58)0.7881.21 (−0.11 to 2.53)0.072
 Private ownership housing−0.56 (−1.76 to 0.64)0.3590.33 (−0.79 to 1.45)0.564
 Living space per capita (per 10 m2 increase)−0.18 (−0.73 to 0.37)0.522−0.05 (−0.57 to 0.48)0.864
 Number of children (per one child increase)−0.41 (−0.94 to 0.11)0.121−0.93 (−1.43 to −0.44)<0.001
 Number of adults (per one adult increase)−0.24 (−0.69 to 0.21)0.290−0.39 (−0.82 to 0.04)0.078
Lifestyle factors
 Smoking status
 Non-smokerRef.Ref.
 Past smoker/current smoker−0.05 (−1.18 to 1.08)0.933−0.81 (−1.88 to 0.26)0.139
 Alcohol drinking
 Non-risky drinkerRef.Ref.
 Risky drinker−0.16 (−2.36 to 2.05)0.889−2.87 (−4.96 to −0.77)0.007
 Physical activities
 ActiveRef.Ref.
 Minimally active−0.29 (−1.85 to 1.26)0.7110.70 (−0.78 to 2.19)0.353
 Inactive−2.14 (−3.38 to −0.89)0.001−0.25 (−1.44 to 0.94)0.680
  • *β coefficients of all listed variables were mutually adjusted in the corresponding models.

  • CI, Confidence interval .