Table 2

Results from the applied Cox proportional hazard models evaluating the 10 year risk of developing a cardiovascular disease event (outcome) according to the baseline values of muscle mass, for the ATTICA participants 45+ years old

All participantsHazard ratios (HR)†, 95% CIs
Model 1Model 2Model 3
SMI (ASM/BMI)0.03** (0.003 to 0.24)0.05* (0.005 to 0.58)0.06* (0.005 to 0.78)
Men vs women6.10** (2.45 to 15.18)4.10** (1.57 to 10.71)3.70* (1.32 to 10.53)
Education (years at school)0.92* (0.85 to 0.99)0.92 (0.85 to 1.00)0.91* (0.84 to 0.99)
SES (low/middle vs high)1.32 (0.65 to 2.70)1.33 (0.65 to 2.72)1.55 (0.73 to 3.29)
MedDietScore (range 0–55)0.95* (0.92 to 0.99)0.95* (0.91 to 0.99)
Smoking ever (yes vs no)1.14 (0.73 to 1.78)1.23 (0.77 to 1.98)
Physically active (yes vs no)0.94 (0.61 to 1.43)0.93 (0.59 to 1.44)
Obesity (yes vs no)0.66 (0.38 to 1.15)
Hypertension (yes vs no)1.64* (1.05 to 2.6)
Diabetes mellitus (yes vs no)1.64 (0.87 to 3.09)
Hypercholesterolaemia (yes vs no)1.15 (0.73 to 1.80)
  • *p<0.05 **p<0.001.

  • †Hazard ratios derived from semi-parametric Cox proportional hazards models.

  • ASM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass; BMI, body mass index; MedDietScore, adherence to the Mediterranean diet; SES, socioeconomic status; SMI, skeletal muscle mass index.