Table 1

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) cases during the ATTICA study 10 year follow-up and key baseline characteristics of the participants 45+ years old when categorised by baseline muscle mass tissue (SMI) tertiles (n=1019)

Baseline SMI (ASM/BMI) tertilesP value
First tertile
(n=340)
Second tertile
(n=344)
Third tertile
(n=335)
CVD during 10 year follow-up, n (% yes)108 (31.7%)117 (34.0%)47 (14.0%)*<0.001
Baseline characteristics
 Age (years)57.1±9.257.3±9.452.2±6.3*<0.001
 Gender (% male)7 (02.0%)299 (87.0%)*335 (100.0%)*<0.001
 Smoking (% yes)136 (40%)227 (66%)*235 (70.0%)*<0.001
 Physical activity (% physically active)129 (38.0%)138 (40.0%)151 (45.0%)0.07
 MedDietScore (range 0–55)24.0±6.022.2±6.1*24.1±4.0<0.001
 Education (years at school)10.1±4.110.2±4.113.3±4.0*<0.001
 SES (low/middle vs high)58 (17.3%)62 (18.0%)151 (44.5%)*<0.001
 Obesity (% yes)82 (23.8%)110 (32.5%)34 (10.8%)*<0.001
 Hypertension (% yes)139 (41.0%)169 (49.0%)*134 (40.1%)0.007
 Diabetes mellitus (% yes)41 (12.0%)55 (16.0%)27 (08.0%)*0.001
 Hypercholesterolaemia (% yes)187 (55.2%)172 (49.6%)184 (52.0%)0.15
  • Continuous variables are presented as mean±SD, and categorical as counts and relative frequencies (percentages). P values refer to the comparisons using χ2 test or t-test for the categorical and continuous variables, respectively; values for the between SMI group comparisons (vs first tertile) were corrected using the Bonferroni rule.

  • *p<0.05.

  • ASM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass; BMI, body mass index; MedDietScore, adherence to the Mediterranean diet; SES, socioeconomic status; SMI, skeletal muscle mass index.