Table 1

Characteristics of the complete case study population by level of maternal education at birth of child (N=6509)

Degree plusDiplomaA levelsGCSE A–CGCSE D–GNoneTotalP value
Adolescents socioemotional behavioural problems at age<0.001
Child’s sex0.701
Maternal age at MCS birth<0.001
 14–24 years26.541.547.552.671.461.347
Maternal ethnicity<0.001
Smoking in pregnancy<0.001
 Yes3.49.911.120.933.746.3 17.7
Alcohol consumption in pregnancy<0.001
 Any unit per week65.351.64640.330.126.346.1
Gestational age at birth0.007
Child’s birth weight<0.001
 Low weight3.
Breast feeding at least 4 months<0.001
Cognitive disability at age 3<0.001
School readiness at age 3<0.001
 Very delayed or delayed3.
Child’s long-term disabilities or illness at age 30.063
Maternal mental health problems<0.001
Parenting style<0.001
 Negligent or harsh parenting style40.143.745.452.15862.649
Child–parents conflict relationship0.001
 High conflicts52.552.552.252.354.563.553.5
Lone parenthood<0.001
Child’s time spent with friends0.027
 Not at all0.601.
Being bullied<0.001
 Some true or certainly true4.
Fights or bullies’ other peers<0.001
 Some true or certainly true9.310.711.614.421.630.415.9
Neighbourhood conditions<0.001
 Fairly common or very common neighbourhood problems5055.956.360.270.872.658.9
Neighbourhood safety<0.001
 Fairly safe5.16.79.514.518.123.613
  • Reference categories were omitted. Full table annexed in online supplementary material S6.

  • *online supplementary material S6

  • MCS, Millennium Cohort Study.