Table 1

Characteristics of the complete case study population by level of maternal education at birth of child (N=6509)

Degree plusDiplomaA levelsGCSE A–CGCSE D–GNoneTotalP value
%%%%%%%
Adolescents socioemotional behavioural problems at age 143.17.05.99.714.314.48.9<0.001
Child’s sex0.701
 Male50.251.246.250.248.347.949.6
Maternal age at MCS birth<0.001
 14–24 years26.541.547.552.671.461.347
Maternal ethnicity<0.001
 Mixed0.80.600.50.50.60.5
 Indian2.01.41.20.91.42.01.4
 Pakistani0.90.91.61.51.44.31.6
 Bangladeshi0.10.40.30.20.41.00.3
 Black2.42.30.50.61.50.81.2
 Other1.40.71.00.30.11.00.7
Smoking in pregnancy<0.001
 Yes3.49.911.120.933.746.317.7
Alcohol consumption in pregnancy<0.001
 Any unit per week65.351.64640.330.126.346.1
Gestational age at birth0.007
 Preterm4.65.83.45.95.86.75.4
Child’s birth weight<0.001
 Low weight3.65.44.75.56.48.95.3
Breast feeding at least 4 months<0.001
 No35.759.758.173.182.184.262.8
Cognitive disability at age 3<0.001
 Yes1.52.32.345.711.13.8
School readiness at age 3<0.001
 Very delayed or delayed3.43.94.98.614.620.37.9
Child’s long-term disabilities or illness at age 30.063
 Yes14.314.811.315.416.319.415
Maternal mental health problems<0.001
 Yes10.912.713.518.418.429.416.3
Parenting style<0.001
 Negligent or harsh parenting style40.143.745.452.15862.649
Child–parents conflict relationship0.001
 High conflicts52.552.552.252.354.563.553.5
Lone parenthood<0.001
 Yes1.74.4812.516.323.89.8
Child’s time spent with friends0.027
 Not at all0.601.50.60.61.30.7
Being bullied<0.001
 Some true or certainly true4.33.95.76.510.513.46.5
Fights or bullies’ other peers<0.001
 Some true or certainly true9.310.711.614.421.630.415.9
Neighbourhood conditions<0.001
 Fairly common or very common neighbourhood problems5055.956.360.270.872.658.9
Neighbourhood safety<0.001
 Fairly safe5.16.79.514.518.123.613
  • Reference categories were omitted. Full table annexed in online supplementary material S6.

  • *online supplementary material S6

  • MCS, Millennium Cohort Study.