Table 1

Sample characteristics and their association with past 30-day depression

n=7277n=10 517Depression in the past 30 days
Men %†Women %†Men PR (95% CI)‡Women PR (95% CI)‡
Age group (years)20–3437 (38, 37, 35)33 (33, 33, 33)11
35–4934 (35, 35, 35)33 (35, 33, 32)1.03 (0.92 to 1.15)1.03 (0.94 to 1.12)
50–6429 (27, 28, 30)34 (32, 34, 35)1.05 (0.94 to 1.17)1.07 (0.98 to 1.16)
EthnicityEstonian72 (69, 72, 73)69 (67, 68, 73)11
Other28 (31, 28, 27)31 (33, 32, 27)0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)*
Marital statusMarried69 (68, 68, 70)67 (65, 66, 72)11
Single23 (22, 24, 23)16 (15, 15, 14)1.34 (1.21 to 1.50)***1.10 (1.00 to 1.21)*
Divorced/widowed8 (10, 8, 7)17 (20, 19, 14)1.87 (1.64 to 2.12)***1.28 (1.18 to 1.39)***
EducationHigh22 (15, 21, 27)32 (23, 32, 40)11
Mid62 (67, 63, 55)59 (66, 61, 51)1.44 (1.26 to 1.64)***1.14 (1.06 to 1.23)**
Low16 (18, 16, 18)9 (11, 7, 9)1.71 (1.46 to 2.00)***1.41 (1.26 to 1.59)***
IncomeHigh35 (35, 39, 35)28 (27, 31, 28)11
Mid36 (35, 29, 39)40 (38, 33, 42)1.16 (1.03 to 1.31)*1.14 (1.04 to 1.24)**
Low29 (30, 32, 26)32 (35, 36, 30)1.76 (1.57 to 1.98)***1.50 (1.37 to 1.64)***
Economic activityEmployed78 (78, 70, 78)72 (71, 67, 73)11
Non-active13 (13, 14, 15)23 (24, 25, 22)1.74 (1.56 to 1.95)***1.11 (1.03 to 1.21)**
Unemployed9 (9, 16, 7)5 (5, 8, 5)2.32 (2.07 to 2.60)***1.55 (1.37 to 1.74)***
Depression in theNo80 (80, 73, 81)75 (75, 69, 77)nana
past 30 daysYes20 (20, 27, 19)25 (25, 31, 23)nana
  • Statistically significant difference: *p<0.05, **p<0.01,***p<0.001.

  • †Weighted average proportion in 2004–2016 and point estimates in 2004, 2010 and 2016 in parentheses.

  • ‡Unadjusted PR with 95% CIs.

  • PR, prevalence ratio; na, not applicable.