Table 1

Distribution of men (%), age-standardised all-cause mortality rate difference (RD)* and rate ratio (RR)† with their 95% CIs by occupational class‡

1995–19992010–2014 (2005–2009§)1995–1999 (2000–2004¶)2010–2014 (2005–2009§, 2015**)
%RDRR95% CI%RDRR95% CI%RDRR95% CI%RDRR95% CI
Finland Italy (Turin
Upper non-manual1701.00
(reference)
2101.00
(reference)
Upper non-manual1801.00
(reference)
2401.00
(reference)
Lower non-manual181561.441.37 to
1.51
211681.681.59 to
1.77
Lower non-manual22841.281.12 to
1.45
21391.150.98 to
1.33
Manual475212.432.34 to
2.53
433922.572.46 to
2.69
Manual442041.671.50 to
1.86
381551.621.42 to
1.83
Farmers82421.681.59 to
1.77
42211.831.70 to
1.98
Farmers0.24212.731.41 to
5.30
Self-employed101841.531.45 to
1.61
111541.611.51 to
1.71
Self-employed171701.481.30 to
1.69
171421.561.35 to
1.81
Denmark Estonia¶
Upper non-manual3501.00
(reference)
3801.00
(reference)
Upper non-manual3401.00
(reference)
4001.00
(reference)
Lower non-manual102561.571.48 to
1.68
122371.771.66 to
1.89
Lower non-manual65161.701.51 to
1.91
83761.851.59 to
2.16
Manual414391.991.91 to
2.08
403592.242.14 to
2.35
Manual478752.152.02 to
2.28
445942.362.16 to
2.59
Farmers13031.811.56 to
2.11
16983.252.53 to
4.18
Farmers135321.691.57 to
1.82
83371.741.54 to
1.97
Self-employed13−650.860.81 to
0.91
9−740.710.66 to
0.78
Self-employed
England/Wales Lithuania¶
Upper non-manual701.00
(reference)
4001.00
(reference)
Upper non-manual2201.00
(reference)
2901.00
(reference)
Lower non-manual40921.321.07 to
1.63
7501.230.92 to
1.64
Lower non-manual63821.481.34 to
1.64
93531.531.38 to
1.69
Manual522711.881.54 to
2.31
361671.691.45 to
1.96
Manual498542.172.05 to
2.29
4710012.432.28 to
2.59
FarmersFarmers59602.292.12 to
2.47
23361.541.32 to
1.79
Self-employed18491.200.99 to
1.46
Self-employed186241.821.71 to
1.94
13−930.880.80 to
0.96
France§ Japan**
Upper non-manual3801.00
(reference)
3901.00
(reference)
Upper non-manual2001.00
(reference)
2101.00
(reference)
Lower non-manual104001.901.62 to
2.23
123081.781.52 to
2.08
Lower non-manual32941.231.20 to
1.26
37−990.710.69 to
0.73
Manual365442.242.00 to
2.50
353851.991.78 to
2.23
Manual43431.131.10 to
1.15
40−190.930.90 to
0.96
Farmers101371.291.09 to
1.53
9241.010.84 to
1.22
Farmers56742.452.38 to
2.52
35592.392.27 to
2.52
Self-employed5461.130.91 to
1.40
4551.060.82 to
1.39
Self-employed
Switzerland South Korea**
Upper non-manual5001.00
(reference)
4801.00
(reference)
Upper non-manual2501.00
(reference)
2201.00
(reference)
Lower non-manual162421.631.57 to
1.70
151821.721.62 to
1.83
Lower non-manual2310223.803.66 to
3.95
32−570.920.89 to
0.95
Manual174082.051.98 to
2.13
202842.172.06 to
2.28
Manual364362.482.39 to
2.57
44−1990.630.61 to
0.65
Farmers5591.171.10 to
1.24
4951.401.27 to
1.53
Farmers1510113.973.82 to
4.12
45021.961.88 to
2.06
Self-employed131051.271.22 to
1.32
12531.221.15 to
1.30
Self-employed
  • *RDs were calculated using direct method with the 2013 European standard population.

  • †RRs and 95% CIs were estimated with Poisson regression adjusting age.

  • ‡Results were applied to correction factors by countries and periods.

  • §France and Italy (Turin) in 2005–2009.

  • ¶Estonia and Lithuania in 2000–2004.

  • **Japan and South Korea in 2015.