Table 1

Participants’ characteristics by gender at baseline

Health indicators
Muscle strength (kg/m2) (intercept; SD)44.510.027.37.1
 Linear effect of time−0.96<0.001−0.67<0.001
 Quadratic effect of time−0.04<0.001−0.010.551
Peak expiratory flow (L/min)(intercept; SD)437.8159.9300.2124.2
 Linear effect of time−5.82<0.001−2.140.106
 Quadratic effect of time−1.150.003−1.30<0.001
Cognition. delayed recall (intercept; SD)
 Linear effect of time0.16<0.0010.12<0.001
 Quadratic effect of time−0.03<0.001−0.03<0.001
Cognition. Verbal fluency (intercept; SD)
 Linear effect of time−0.37<0.001−0.37<0.001
 Quadratic effect of time0.020.1460.020.026
Depression (intercept; SD)
 Linear effect of time0.050.0030.020.315
 Quadratic effect of time0.010.0060.010.005
Well-being (intercept; SD)37.95.737.06.3
 Linear effect of time0.140.00600.040.349
 Quadratic effect of time-0.04<0.001-0.020.047
Early-life SEC
No of book
 Less than 10460044.087%545342.2%
 More than 10583455.913%745757.8%
Occupational position of the main breadwinner
 Low skills905386.8%11 23687.0%
 High skills138113.2%167413.0%
Overcrowding (ref. no)
Housing quality (ref. high)
 Low quality291427.928%357527.7%
 High quality752072.072%933572.3%
Adult-life SEC
 Main ocupational position
 Low skill706967.7%899869.7%
 High skill328431.5%215216.7%
 Never worked810.8%176313.6%
 Satisfaction with Income
 With great difficulty9158.8%143111.1%
 With some difficulty210620.2%287722.3%
 Fairly easily324131.1%398030.8%
 Childhood health problems
Adverse childhood experiences
 No817778.4%10 19479.0%
Age at baseline (years), SD62.58.861.99.3
 Czech Republic6476.2%8866.9%
Birth cohort
 After 1945440242.2%588345.6%
 between 1939 and 1945256824.6%294522.8%
 between 1929 and 1938255724.5%288622.3%
 between 1919 and 19289078.7%11999.3%
 No drop-out723469.3%952873.8%
  • The baseline characteristics for early-life SEC and covariates are based on the participants included the model testing for muscle strength (ie, the highest sample size). The coefficients associated with the linear and quadratic effects of time were obtained from models including only time and time squared as fixed effects, as well as a random intercept for participants and random linear slopes for waves at the level of participants.

  • SEC, socioeconomic circumstances.