Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population by SES in childhood

Low SES in childhoodHigh SES in childhoodP for difference
N (%)10 756 (48.5)11 438 (51.5)
Sex (male)48.447.60.24
Age (years; means, SD)60.1 (11.0)50.5 (10.3)<0.0001
SES in adulthood
Educational level<0.0001
 Up to upper secondary24.844.9
 Up to lower secondary68.836.2
Housing tenure<0.0001
 >1 dwelling ownership7.410.7
 One dwelling ownership81.982.2
Occupational class<0.0001
 Skilled non-manual30.542.5
 Skilled manual21.615.2
 Partly skillled/unskilled24.413.2
 Unclassified subjects1.11.5
Marital status<0.0001
SES in childhood
Housing tenure<0.0001
 >1 dwelling ownership0.42.2
 One dwelling ownership55.687.9
Availability of hot water10.568.5<0.0001
Cardiovascular disease7.33.00.0049
Drugs for diabetes6.53.00.017
Drugs for hypertension35.318.80.0004
Lipid-lowering drugs10.05.50.56
 Psychological assessment0.11
 Psychologically healthy87.887.9
 Use of antidepressants3.03.0
 Use of psychoactive drugs*4.44.0
 Self-reported diagnosis of psychological disease†4.24.4
Abdominal obesity78.569.00.0005
Mediterranean diet score≥710.69.80.66
Leisure-time PA≥30 min/d65.762.60.0021
Smoking status0.058
 Former smokers29.425.8
  • Values are represented as percentages unless otherwise stated. Means and p values are adjusted for age (continuous) and sex.

  • *Other than antidepressants.

  • †Depression, anxiety or insomnia without use of drugs. Leisure-time PA=leisure time physical activity; Abdominal obesity=waist to hip ratio≥0.85 or≥0.90 for women and men, respectively.

  • SES, socioeconomic status.