Table 1

Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the unmatched analytic samples

USA (NHIS 2003–2014)Canada (CCHS 2003–2014)
n=1026n=14 561n=609n=3625n=1746n=8279n=1556n=1021
Age (years)32.634.331.834.839.739.638.937.8
Female (%)73.756.472.754.763.957.051.254.3
Household type (%)
 Single with children49.821.448.420.034.318.029.821.2
 Couple with children38.630.734.227.414.033.812.828.3
Number of children (0–18 years)1.941.151.830.94
Number of children (0–5 years)0.3020.2780.2900.215
Number of children (6–11 years)0.3460.3310.2760.214
Race (%)
 Other or mixed30.228.138.635.
Immigrant (%)19.025.627.934.210.724.814.427.7
Education (%)
 Postsecondary degree3.
 Some postsecondary30.630.725.127.533.235.632.530.3
 Less than secondary37.529.341.431.434.920.635.921.8
Adjusted household income‡8807895380658575
Urban§ (%)84.781.783.383.8
Health insurance coverage¶ (%)68.352.078.045.3
Home owner (%)9.622.27.620.213.550.413.141.4
Part-time employment (%)54.945.258.627.8
Mental health problem (%)
Region (%)
 Northeast (USA)/Atlantic (CA)16.812.919.711.513.
 Midwest (USA)/Prairies (CA)21.220.425.021.518.023.312.113.6
 South (USA)/Quebec (CA)23.841.521.543.825.019.132.818.0
 West (USA)/Ontario (CA)38.225.333.823.130.531.728.536.4
 British Columbia (CA)13.016.811.620.7
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †Due to small sample sizes, we were not able to include these categories in the Canadian sample; instead, they are combined with the ‘other’ category.

  • ‡Continuous income data are not available in the NHIS public microdata file. We were able to identify the lowest decile of NHIS respondents using the available poverty ratio variable. However, we are unable to describe differences in household income within the lowest decile.

  • §The NHIS does not provide a variable to define urban versus rural living.

  • ¶Due to universal public healthcare coverage, this variable was not used in the analysis of the CCHS.

  • NHIS, National Health Interview Survey; CCHS, Canadian Community Health Survey.