Table 1

Risk factors for incident sarcopenia* over 8-year follow-up in men and women from ELSA

Baseline risk factorMen
OR (95% CI)
(cases=208; n=1564)
Women
OR (95 % CI)
(cases=287; n=1840)
Age1.16 (1.14 to 1.19)1.12 (1.10 to 1.14)
Physical activity
 Inactive1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 Moderate0.44 (0.27 to 0.67)0.85 (0.55 to 1.22)
 Vigorous0.53 (0.31 to 0.82)0.44 (0.28 to 0.68)
Smoking
 None1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 Current1.29 (0.75 to 2.19)0.80 (0.53 to 1.21)
Alcohol
 Daily1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 1–4/week1.17 (0.77 to 1.76)1.13 (0.74 to 1.73)
 Rarely1.15 (0.75 to 1.92)1.13 (0.74 to 1.73)
 Not in past 12 months1.02 (0.57 to 2.22)1.30 (0.77 to 2.22)
Wealth
 1 (lowest)1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 20.75 (0.43 to 1.38)1.26 (0.79 to 2.01)
 30.63 (0.35 to 1.14)0.60 (0.37 to 0.95)
 40.52 (0.28 to 0.93)0.77 (0.47 to 1.23)
 5 (highest)0.44 (0.24 to 0.81)0.63 (0.38 to 1.02)
Depressive symptoms
 CESD <41.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 CESD ≥40.82 (0.45 to 1.51)1.19 (0.81 to 1.75)
Activity limiting illness
 No1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 Yes1.49 (1.03 to 2.18)1.29 (0.94 to 1.77)
Central obesity
 No1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 Yes0.84 (0.60 to 1.18)1.12 (0.84 to 1.49)
Diabetes
 No1.0 (Ref)1.0 (Ref)
 Yes2.43 (1.50 to 3.95)1.49 (0.83 to 2.68)
  • Participants with sarcopenia at baseline were removed.

  • OR are mutually adjusted for all presented variables.

  • *Cases of sarcopenia at follow-up defined as handgrip <26 kg in men and <16 kg in women.

  • CESD, Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale; ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.