Table 3

Determinants of all-cause mortality: results from multilevel parametric Weibull proportional hazard regression models (HRs and 95% CIs)

Model 1Model 2
HR95% CIHR95% CI
Individual level
Generalised trust (group-mean centred) 0.83 0.79 to 0.87 0.92 0.88 to 0.97
Age 1.07 1.07 to 1.08 1.07 1.07 to 1.08
Race
 Black (ref: white) 1.24 1.13 to 1.36
 Other race1.03 0.91 to 1.16
Sex
 Female (ref: male) 0.69 0.65 to 0.73
Degree
 Less than high school
 High school (ref:)
1.21 1.13 to 1.29
 Junior college 0.84 0.73 to 0.97
 Bachelor 0.84 0.77 to 0.91
 Graduate 0.87 0.78 to 0.97
Marital status
 Married (ref.)
  Widowed 1.22 1.14 to 1.31
  Divorced0.99 0.92 to 1.08
  Separated1.11 0.97 to 1.26
  Never married 1.32 1.21 to 1.44
Income
 Household income (in 10 000 constant 1986 US$, group-mean centred) 0.94 0.93 to 0.96
Contextual level
 Generalised trust (level 2, aggregated level 1 trust, z-standardised) 0.93 0.90 to 0.96 0.96 0.93 to 0.99
 Ln(p)0.5040.512
 Residual variance (level 1)0.6000.593
 Residual variance (level 2)0.0060.004
 Level 2 variance explained60%73%
  • Residual variance, level 1=0.921; residual variance, level 2=0.015

  • Data source: GSS–NDI: n=25 270; number of failures=6424. Data weighted with WTSSALL.

  • Statistically significant coefficients (p<0.05) boldfaced. 

  • NDI, National Death Index; GSS, General Social Survey.