Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of Philadelphia 9-digit ZIP codes (n=2002) and individual survey respondents (n=2083)

N(%) or mean(SD)
Area-level (9-digit ZIP) socioeconomic and demographic characteristics
 Median credit score665 (58)
  Subprime* (≤660)998 (47.9)
  Near prime* (660–719)579 (27.8)
  High prime* (≥720)506 (24.3)
 Median age37(7)
 % Annual household income >$100 00020.5 (13.5)
 % Graduate degree10.3 (12.6)
 % Black43.9 (37.1)
 % Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity10.2 (14.3)
 Number of retail pharmacies11 (5)
Individual-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics
 Age54 (15)
 Below 200% poverty822 (39.5%)
 Income >$100 000400 (19.6%)
 Graduate degree286 (13.7%)
 Black (non-Hispanic/Latinx)829 (39.8%)
 Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity148 (7.1%)
 Insured1981 (95.1%)
Behavioural risk factors and chronic disease outcomes
 Overweight/obese (BMI >25)1481 (71.1%)
 Diabetes347 (16.7%)
 Hypertension885 (42.5%)
  Watching salt intake (n=879)713 (80.6%)
  Not adherent to hypertension medications (n=780)113 (12.7%)
 Smoking387 (18.6%)
 Exercise ≥90 min per week994 (47.7%)
  • *Designations from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.32

  • BMI, body mass index.