Table 1

Preterm birth rate and rate ratios for each time period by nativity, race/ethnicity and ancestry, New York City, 1 September 2015 to 31 August 2017

Total births (n) Preterm births (n) PTB rate (%) Time period 1: during campaign, before US presidential nominations Time period 2: nomination to inauguration Time period 3: post-inauguration Rate ratio (time period 2/time period 1) and 95% CI Rate ratio (time period 3/time period 1) and 95% CI
Rate (%) Rate (%) Rate (%) Rate ratio 95% CI Rate ratio 95% CI
Population (n) 230 10516 3317. to to 1.07
 US born110 51081647. to to 1.07
 Foreign born119 45681506. to to 1.11
 Hispanic65 79951267. to to 1.13
 Asian and Pacific Islander40 48826566. to to 1.11
 White non-Hispanic77 87439025. to to 1.08
 Black non-Hispanic42 774441010.310. to to 1.11
 Other30042187. to 1.641.080.80 to 1.45
 MENA (travel ban+rest of MENA)72703444. to 1.471.070.85 to 1.36
 MENA+Arab+Kurd+Muslim+Sikh80583844. to 1.321.080.86 to 1.34
 Travel ban24051134. to 1.651.030.69 to 1.54
 Rest of MENA48652314. to 1.621.090.81 to 1.46
 Mexico and Central America17 15612897. to to 1.28
 Sub-Saharan Africa58414077. to 1.431.050.84 to 1.30
 Caribbean45 23738928. to to 1.13
 North America other than USA483224. to 4.021.480.58 to 3.76
 USA49 15740848. to to 1.09
 South America14 320 10817. to to 1.20
 Rest of Asia excluding MENA41 71426236. to to 1.09
 Europe27 07213234. to to 1.16
 Oceania324185. to 1.830.350.10 to 1.21
 Jewish or Hebrew10 3544404. to 1.320.840.68 to 1.04
Nativity and ethnicity
US born
 Hispanic28 38024518. to to 1.15
 Asian and Pacific Islander45812916. to 1.240.950.74 to 1.23
 White non-Hispanic52 68627005. to 1.120.970.89 to 1.05
 Black non-Hispanic22 975257011.211.310.311.70.920.83 to to 1.13
 Other18001427. to 1.761.160.80 to 1.66
 Travel ban350102. to 4.551.130.31 to 4.14
 Rest of MENA527193. to 3.251.420.54 to 3.72
 Mexico and Central America39172837. to 1.341.140.88 to 1.46
 Sub-Saharan Africa1701710.05.916.111.32.740.78 to 9.651.920.60 to 6.12
 Caribbean21 15518999. to to 1.16
 North America other than USA3013.
 USA44 14736148. to to 1.09
 South America25661867. to 1.621.401.02 to 1.92
 Rest of Asia excluding MENA43672696. to 1.250.930.71 to 1.21
 Europe15 4568185. to to 1.17
 Oceania4648.714.30.06.700.470.05 to 4.36
 Jewish or Hebrew89773834. to 1.260.750.59 to 0.94
 MENA+Arab+Kurd+Muslim+Sikh1012343. to 1.911.430.71 to 2.90
Foreign born
 Hispanic37 40526737. to to 1.17
 Asian and Pacific Islander35 89923646. to to 1.13
 White non-Hispanic25 13212004. to 1.371.120.98 to 1.27
 Black non-Hispanic19 77818359. to to 1.15
 Other1204766. to 2.050.910.54 to 1.54
 MENA79954175. to 1.391.100.89 to 1.36
 Seven countries in travel ban24951315. to 1.681.120.77 to 1.63
 Rest of MENA55002865. to 1.471.080.83 to 1.40
 Mexico + Central America13 414 10227. to to 1.31
 Caribbean26 29322278. to to 1.18
 South America12 84510147. to to 1.18
 North America other than USA and Mexico and Central America1270665. to 3.311.040.58 to 1.86
 Europe12 5465684. to 1.430.970.80 to 1.17
 Oceania491224. to to 2.59
 Sub-Saharan Africa73805137. to 1.331.050.87 to 1.28
 Asia (not including MENA)37 07922856. to to 1.14
 MENA+Arab+Kurd+Muslim+Sikh80304185. to 1.391.100.89 to 1.36
  • Categories employed for maternal nativity, race/ethnicity and ancestry:

  • – Maternal race/ethnicity, ancestry and nativity data were reported at the time of birth by the mother. Maternal race/ethnicity was categorised using race and ancestry, categorised as White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic.16 Hispanic ethnicity includes persons of Hispanic origin based on ancestry reported on the birth certificate, regardless of reported race. Black, White and Asian/Pacific Islander race categories do not include persons of Hispanic origin. For the ancestry question, mothers are able to specify the ancestry group in an open text field. Maternal nativity is categorised as born in the USA (US born) and born outside the USA. If mothers indicate that they were born outside the USA, they can specify their country of birth in a text field.

  • – Women who may be at risk for anti-Muslim discrimination were categorised based on ancestry and/or country of birth. The travel ban group captured any women whose reported country of birth or ancestry was included in the original seven-country travel ban (Iran, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Sudan, Libya and Somalia). MENA group captured women whose reported country of birth or ancestry included any country belonging to the MENA region as designated by the United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen).17 MENA+Arab+Kurd+Muslim+Sikh group attempts to capture those women who were born in MENA countries or identified a MENA ancestry or specified an ancestry of Arab, Kurd, Muslim or Sikh (with this last group included because even though Sikhs are not Muslims, they have experienced anti-Muslim attacks on account of their appearance).18 

  • MENA, Middle Eastern and North African; PTB, preterm birth.