Table 1

Variable definition and statistical summary

Self-reported healthVery good=5; good=4; fair=3; poor=2; very poor=1.2.9990.90213 486
Activities of daily living limitationsThe number of ADL limitation problems (from 0 to 10).0.3671.26017 352
Cadre childIf the respondent has at least one child working as a cadre in the government=1; otherwise=0.0.04917 352
Lower rankingIf the cadre child holds an administrative rank of ‘Ke’ level or below=1; otherwise,=0.0.02617 352
Higher rankingIf the cadre child holds an administrative rank of ‘Chu’ level or above=1; otherwise=0.0.02417 352
Professional childIf the respondent has at least one child holding a professional title without administrative rank=1; otherwise=0.0.0120.29117 352
Manager childIf the respondent has at least one child who works as manager but does not have administrative rank in his or her work units=1; otherwise=0.0.0930.29117 352
Social integrationThe frequency of social interactions.1.2871.79017 352
AgeThe age of elderly respondent in years.59.04710.12717 321
Age squareThe square of age.17 321
FemaleIf the elderly respondent is female=1; If male=0.0.47917 340
UnmarriedIf the elderly respondent is unmarried=1; otherwise=0.0.00917 352
DivorcedIf the elderly respondent is divorced=1; otherwise=0.0.013
WidowedIf the elderly respondent is widowed=1; otherwise=0.0.106
EducationThe education of the elderly respondent in years.5.2934.33917 322
Number of living childrenThe number of living children of the elderly respondent.2.6431.44817 352
DepressionThe number of depressive symptoms (from 0 to 8).2.2681.93817 352
Chronic diseasesThe number of chronic diseases that the elderly respondent has been diagnosed with (from 0 to 14).1.3621.39317 352
Log of financial assetsThe logarithm of family financial assets.4.0035.66616 416
Local eliteIf the elderly respondent was former government employee, former village head, former manager in firm or self-employed entrepreneur with an annual income above the average level of the self-employed group=1; otherwise=0.0.0500.21917 352
RuralIf the elderly respondent is living in the rural (yes=1).0.76717 352
Plain areaWhether the community is in a plain area (yes=1).0.95817 318
Paved roadWhether the roads in community are paved (yes=1).0.44717 352