Table 1

Baseline details of analysis population (n=4499)

All (n=5059)Anaemic*
(n=1875)
Not anaemic
(n=2624)
No Hb measurement (n=560)
Mean age (years) (SD)61.7 (13.1)62.4 (13.3)61.4 (12.8)†60.9 (13.5)†
Age group (%)
 40–49918 (18.1)321 (17.1)483 (18.4)114 (20.4)
 50–591410 (27.9)496 (26.5)746 (28.4)168 (30.0)
 60–691304 (25.8)497 (26.5)680 (25.9)127 (22.7)
 70–79878 (17.4)343 (18.3)450 (17.1)85 (15.2)
 80+549 (10.9)218 (11.6)265 (10.1)66 (11.8)
Female sex (%)2714 (53.6)1042 (55.6)1382 (52.7)290 (51.8)
Mean haemoglobin concentration (g/dL) (SD)
 Males13.2 (2.8)11.4 (3.4)14.5 (1.2)†-
 Females12.0 (1.8)10.5 (1.5)13.2 (0.9)†-
Median C reactive protein concentration‡ (mg/L) (IQR)2.3 (1.24.3)2.3 (1.3, 4.5)2.3 (1.2, 4.2)†2.3 (1.3, 4.7)
HIV positive (%)1047 (20.7)534 (28.5)472 (18.0)†41 (7.3)†
Previous angina (%)456 (9.0)183 (9.8)250 (9.5)23 (4.1)†
Previous stroke (%)149 (2.9)63 (3.4)74 (2.8)12 (2.1)
Hypertension (%)3145 (62.2)1151 (61.4)1702 (64.9)†292 (52.1)†
Diabetes mellitus (%)559 (11.0)229 (12.2)286 (10.9)44 (7.9)†
Chronic bronchitis (%)28 (0.6)15 (0.8)10 (0.4)3 (0.5)
Highest level of education (%)‡
 No education2306 (45.7)901 (48.2)1151 (44.0)†254 (45.6)†
 Year 1 – 7 (primary)1716 (34.0)640 (34.2)915 (35.0)†161 (28.9)†
 Year 8 – 11 (secondary)574 (11.4)206 (11.0)305 (11.7)†63 (11.3)†
 Year 12+ (secondary and above)446 (8.8)123 (6.6)244 (9.3)†79 (14.2)†
Mean 5 m walk speed (m/s) (SD)
 Males0.65 (0.33)0.66 (0.32)0.68 (0.29)0.51 (0.44)†
 Females0.62 (0.33)0.64 (0.32)0.63 (0.32)0.45 (0.35)†
Mean maximum grip strength (kg) (SD)
 Males29.5 (12.7)28.9 (11.1)31.5 (11.8)†22.6 (17.6)†
 Females22.0 (9.5)21.7 (8.7)23.1 (9.0)†17.4 (12.8)†
Cognitive z-score (SD)‡0 (1)−0.05 (0.99)0.04 (0.99)†−0.04 (1.06)
Mean body mass index (kg/m 2) (SD)
Males24.9 (5.5)24.4 (5.3)25.3 (5.5)†24.5 (6.3)
Females29.3 (7.5)28.9 (8.0)29.6 (7.1)†28.9 (6.8)
≥1  basic ADL impairment (%)476 (9.4)188 (10.0)223 (8.5)65 (11.6)
  • *Haemoglobin (Hb) <13.0 g/dL for men, <12.0 g/dL for women.

  • †P<0.05 compared with individuals with anaemia.

  • ‡Cognitive score data for 4927 individuals (4404 in the analysis sample); C reactive protein data for 4302 individuals (4124 in the analysis sample); education data for 5042 individuals (4485 in the analysis sample).

  • ADLs, activities of daily living.