Table 1

Health-related studies using synthetic control methodology

DateFirst author (reference)ExposureOutcomeTreated unit(s)Donor pool
Health finance and health systems reform
2016Ryan4 Pay for performanceMortalityUKOther high-income countries
2015Mas (unpublished)Healthcare integrationHealthcare efficiency measuresSpanish integrated healthcare unitSpanish non-integrated healthcare units
2015Lepine5 User fee removalHealthcare utilisationTreated Zambian regionsUntreated Zambian regions
2015Kreif6 Pay for performanceRisk adjusted mortalityTreated UK hospitalsUntreated UK hospitals
2015Machado7 Levels of health insuranceInfertility levelsStates with strong infertility mandatesStates with weak infertility mandates
2015Roy8 Health reformSources of health insuranceInsured Massachusetts PopulationUninsured Massachusetts population
2014Courtemanche9 Levels of health insuranceSelf-reported healthMassachusettsUntreated US states
2014Dunn10 Health reformPhysician paymentsMassachusettsUntreated US states
2014Tuzemen11 Health reformNon-insurance rateMassachusettsUntreated US states
2013Lo12 Income levelsSubstitution of public/private insuranceIllinoisUntreated US states
Industry regulation
2016Quast13 Registration of sex workersIncidence of sexually transmitted diseaseTijuana, MexicoUntreated Mexican regions
2015Restrepo14 Trans fat banHeart disease mortalityTreated counties in New YorkUntreated counties in New York
2014Sampaio15 Mobile phone banRoad accidentsNew York stateUntreated US states
2014Restrepo16 Trans fat banHeart disease mortalityDenmarkOther OECD countries
2014Green17 Alcohol licencing hoursRoad accidentsEngland and WalesScottish regions
2014Wang18 Pasteurisation of milkChild mortalityTreated US citiesUntreated US cities
2014Cunningham19 Decriminalisation of indoor prostitutionIncidence of sexually transmitted diseaseRhode Island, USAUntreated US states/cities
Taxation policy
2016Berardi20 Tax on sugary drinksPrice of affected drink categoriesPrices of sugary drinks in FranceOther drink categories in France
2016Grogger21 Tax on sugary drinksPrice of other drink categoriesPrices of sugary drinks in MexicoOther drink categories in Mexico
2016Chelwa22 Tax on cigarettesCigarette salesSouth AfricaUntreated low-income and middle-income countries
2015Bilgel23 Tax breaks for organ donorsLive organ donationsNew York StateUntreated US states
2015Fletcher24 Tax on sugary drinksChanges in BMIArkansas, OhioUntreated US states
2010Abadie2 Tax on cigarettesCigarette salesCaliforniaUntreated US states
Legal changes
2015Zabinski25 Medical malpractice liabilityPatient safety measuresTexas, Florida, Illinois, South Carolina, GeorgiaUntreated US states
2015Crifasi26 Hand gun lawsSuicide ratesConnecticut, MissouriUntreated US states
2015Cunningham27 Drug lawsDrug seizuresMississippiUntreated US states
2015Powell28 Legalisation of marijuanaOverdoses from painkillersUS states with medical marijuana lawUS states without medical marijuana law
Development and barriers to development
2015Alavuotunki29 General Budget Support (GBS)Neonatal mortalityCountries in receipt of GBSCountries from the region of the treated country not in receipt of GBS
2015Karlsson30 HIV prevalenceDemographic outcomesCountries in Africa with high HIV prevalenceCountries in Africa with low HIV prevalence
2014Pereda31 Climate changeDengue riskBrazilian cities with high dengue riskBrazilian cities with low dengue risk
2014Peiters32 Political transitionChild mortalityCountries which became democraticCountries that remained autocratic
Nutrition interventions
2015Qian33 School food programmeBMITreated schools in Arkansas, USUntreated schools in Arkansas, USA
2014Bauhoff34 School food programmeBMITreated school districts in California, USUntreated school district in California, USA
2013Kiesel35 Better food labellingProduct salesTreated US supermarketsUntreated US supermarkets
Welfare reforms
2016Chung36 Money transferBirth weightsAlaskaUntreated US states
2016Oloomi37 Paid family leaveInfant health outcomesCaliforniaUntreated US states
2016Basu38 Welfare reformsHealthcare utilisationSingle mothers in the USAMarried mothers and single women in the USA
2015Grossman39 Urban empowerment zones (UEZs)Fertility and mental health outcomesUEZ in Chicago, New York and PhiladephiaUnsuccessful applicants for UEZ status in US cities
  • BMI, body mass index; OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.