Table 2

Study characteristics and quality assessment of papers considering nature and mental health of children and teenagers

Ref#
Country
Ages
(years)
NElement(s) of natureNature
interaction(s)
Outcome(s)Study design
(quality)
25
Spain
7–102111Green Space
Blue Space
Greenness
Accessibility
Exposure
Emotional WB
Hyperactivity
Inattention
Mental Health
Cross-sectional*
NC (G)
20
Lithuania
4–61468City Parks
Greenness
AccessibilityEmotional WB
Hyperactivity
Mental Health
Cross-sectional*
NC (F)
26
England
8–952Nature
Orienteering
EngagementSelf-esteemIntervention*
NC (F)
27
Australia
13–1653Outdoor
Adventure
EngagementMental HealthIntervention*
NC (P)
28
Australia
12–1836Wilderness
Therapy
EngagementEmotional WB
Mental Health
Self-esteem
Depression
Resilience
Intervention*
NC (F)
29
U.S.
12–18†50Horticulture ProgrammeEngagementSelf-esteemIntervention‡
C (F)
30
USA
13–18100Wilderness
Therapy
EngagementMental HealthQuasi Empirical*
NC (G)
31
USA
12–1568ParksAccessibilityStressCross-sectional*
NC (F)
32
England
0.75, 3,
5, 7
6348Green SpaceAccessibility
Exposure
Emotional WB
Hyperactivity Inattention
Cross-sectional‡
NC (F)
33
UK
16–18120OutdoorsExposureEmotional WB
Attention
Intervention‡
NC (P)
34
Netherlands
12–15401GreeneryExposureDepressionLongitudinal*
NC (F)
35
USA
13–18221Wilderness
Therapy
EngagementEmotional WB
Mental Health
Longitudinal
Case Study*
NC (F)
36
UK
12–1525Woodland EducationEngagementSelf-esteemExploratory*
NC (F)
37
Canada
11–1617 249Natural Space
Green Space
Blue Space
AccessibilityEmotional WBCross-sectional*
NC (F)
38
Austria
13–15133SchoolyardExposureEmotional WBPre-Post, Quasi-
Experimental*
C (F)
39
USA
9–1192Natural
Environments
AccessibilityHRQOLCross-sectional‡
NC (F)
40
USA
5–18452Green OutdoorExposureADHDCross-sectional‡
NC (P)
41
Germany
9.4–11.71932Green SpaceAccessibilityEmotional WB
Hyperactivity
Inattention
Cross-sectional*
NC (F)
42
Scotland
8–11276Green SpaceAccessibility
Exposure
Emotional WB
Self-esteem
HRQOL
Cross-sectional*
NC (G)
43
Germany
1412Outdoor
Adventure
EngagementMental Health
Stress
Intervention
Pilot Study*
NC (P)
44
South
Africa
Grade
10
76§Outdoor
Adventure Education
EngagementEmotional WB
Stress
Pre-Post
Experimental*
NC (G)
6
UK
11–1275ParkExposureSelf-esteemCounterbalanced
Randomised Cross Over*
C (P)
7
Canada
12–1873Outdoor Adventure Leadership ExperienceEngagementMental Health
Self-esteem
Resilience
Intervention‡
C (G)
45
UK
1118Forest SchoolsEngagementEmotional WBIntervention*
NC (F)
46
Israel
15–1894Wilderness
Therapy
EngagementSelf-esteemIntervention*
C (F)
47
Sweden
3–5.9169Outdoor Preschool EnvironmentAccessibility
Exposure
Emotional WBCross-sectional*
NC (P)
48
USA
7–1217ParkExposureADHDSingle Blind
Control Trial*
C (G)
49
USA
5–18421Grass
Trees
ExposureADD/ADHDCross-sectional‡
NC (P)
50
USA
7–1296Greenness Trees
Grass
Accessibility
Exposure
ADD/ADHDCross-sectional‡
NC (P)
51
Netherlands
9–1712Natural (Wooded) SettingEngagementEmotional WB
ADHD
Intervention‡
NC (G)
52
New
Zealand
12–188500GardenEngagementMental Health
Depression
Cross-sectional*
NC (F)
53
New
Zealand
11–14108Green SpaceExposureEmotional WBCross-sectional‡
NC (G)
54
USA
Grades
3–5
337Outdoor
Yard
AccessibilityStressCross-sectional‡
NC (F)
21
USA
10–1587¶Outdoor
Adventure
EngagementResilienceIntervention*
NC (G)
55
UK
8–925School FieldExposureSelf-esteemCounterbalanced
Randomised Cross-over*
NC (F)
  • *Study design originally mentioned in paper.

  • †Survey used was designed for children ages 12–18, but participant age not specified.

  • ‡Study design assigned by reviewer.

  • §Males only.

  • ¶Females only.

  • Study Quality Assessment: (G), Good;  (F), Fair;  (P),  Poor.

  • ADD,  attention deficit disorder; ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; HRQOL, health-related quality of life; C, study design included control group; NC, no  control group; WB, well-being.