Table 3

Findings by outcome, type of nature interaction and study quality

OutcomeAccessibilityExposureEngagementTotal
PRNSNRPRNSPRNSPRNSNR
Quality Good
 Emotional Well-being1322255
 ADD/ADHD2212135
 Overall Mental Health121141
 Self–esteem11112
 Stress1111
 Depression
 Resilience2222
 HRQOL1111
 Total Good4774661717
Quality Fair
 Emotional Well-being25112359
 ADD/ADHD3110041
 Overall Mental Health1132421
 Self-esteem22628
 Stress330
 Depression12324
 Resilience11
 HRQOL33
 Total Fair126124101424241
Quality Poor
 Emotional Well–being2121
 ADD/ADHD156
 Overall Mental Health3333
 Self-esteem
 Stress1111
 Depression
 Resilience
 HRQOL
 Total Poor17144125
Total17131169202453461
  • ADD, attention deficit disorder; ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; HRQOL, health-related quality of life; NR, nature has significant negative impact on outcome; NS, non-significant finding; PR, nature has significant positive benefit on outcome.