Table 1

Health-related studies using synthetic control methodology

DateFirst author (reference)ExposureOutcomeTreated unit(s)Donor pool
Health finance and health systems reform
2016Ryan4Pay for performanceMortalityUKOther high-income countries
2015Mas (unpublished)Healthcare integrationHealthcare efficiency measuresSpanish integrated healthcare unitSpanish non-integrated healthcare units
2015Lepine5User fee removalHealthcare utilisationTreated Zambian regionsUntreated Zambian regions
2015Kreif6Pay for performanceRisk adjusted mortalityTreated UK hospitalsUntreated UK hospitals
2015Machado7Levels of health insuranceInfertility levelsStates with strong infertility mandatesStates with weak infertility mandates
2015Roy8Health reformSources of health insuranceInsured Massachusetts PopulationUninsured Massachusetts population
2014Courtemanche9Levels of health insuranceSelf-reported healthMassachusettsUntreated US states
2014Dunn10Health reformPhysician paymentsMassachusettsUntreated US states
2014Tuzemen11Health reformNon-insurance rateMassachusettsUntreated US states
2013Lo12Income levelsSubstitution of public/private insuranceIllinoisUntreated US states
Industry regulation
2016Quast13Registration of sex workersIncidence of sexually transmitted diseaseTijuana, MexicoUntreated Mexican regions
2015Restrepo14Trans fat banHeart disease mortalityTreated counties in New YorkUntreated counties in New York
2014Sampaio15Mobile phone banRoad accidentsNew York stateUntreated US states
2014Restrepo16Trans fat banHeart disease mortalityDenmarkOther OECD countries
2014Green17Alcohol licencing hoursRoad accidentsEngland and WalesScottish regions
2014Wang18Pasteurisation of milkChild mortalityTreated US citiesUntreated US cities
2014Cunningham19Decriminalisation of indoor prostitutionIncidence of sexually transmitted diseaseRhode Island, USAUntreated US states/cities
Taxation policy
2016Berardi20Tax on sugary drinksPrice of affected drink categoriesPrices of sugary drinks in FranceOther drink categories in France
2016Grogger21Tax on sugary drinksPrice of other drink categoriesPrices of sugary drinks in MexicoOther drink categories in Mexico
2016Chelwa22Tax on cigarettesCigarette salesSouth AfricaUntreated low-income and middle-income countries
2015Bilgel23Tax breaks for organ donorsLive organ donationsNew York StateUntreated US states
2015Fletcher24Tax on sugary drinksChanges in BMIArkansas, OhioUntreated US states
2010Abadie2Tax on cigarettesCigarette salesCaliforniaUntreated US states
Legal changes
2015Zabinski25Medical malpractice liabilityPatient safety measuresTexas, Florida, Illinois, South Carolina, GeorgiaUntreated US states
2015Crifasi26Hand gun lawsSuicide ratesConnecticut, MissouriUntreated US states
2015Cunningham27Drug lawsDrug seizuresMississippiUntreated US states
2015Powell28Legalisation of marijuanaOverdoses from painkillersUS states with medical marijuana lawUS states without medical marijuana law
Development and barriers to development
2015Alavuotunki29General Budget Support (GBS)Neonatal mortalityCountries in receipt of GBSCountries from the region of the treated country not in receipt of GBS
2015Karlsson30HIV prevalenceDemographic outcomesCountries in Africa with high HIV prevalenceCountries in Africa with low HIV prevalence
2014Pereda31Climate changeDengue riskBrazilian cities with high dengue riskBrazilian cities with low dengue risk
2014Peiters32Political transitionChild mortalityCountries which became democraticCountries that remained autocratic
Nutrition interventions
2015Qian33School food programmeBMITreated schools in Arkansas, USUntreated schools in Arkansas, USA
2014Bauhoff34School food programmeBMITreated school districts in California, USUntreated school district in California, USA
2013Kiesel35Better food labellingProduct salesTreated US supermarketsUntreated US supermarkets
Welfare reforms
2016Chung36Money transferBirth weightsAlaskaUntreated US states
2016Oloomi37Paid family leaveInfant health outcomesCaliforniaUntreated US states
2016Basu38Welfare reformsHealthcare utilisationSingle mothers in the USAMarried mothers and single women in the USA
2015Grossman39Urban empowerment zones (UEZs)Fertility and mental health outcomesUEZ in Chicago, New York and PhiladephiaUnsuccessful applicants for UEZ status in US cities
  • BMI, body mass index; OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.