Table 1

Sample characteristics (n=89 663)

Variables%95% CI
Male child50.9(50.6 to 51.2)
Age of child in months (sample range from 36 to 59  months), mean (SD)47.2 (6.9)
Maternal education
  None29.7(29.1 to 30.3)
  Primary32.0(31.5 to 32.5)
  Secondary or higher38.3(37.7 to 38.8)
Paternal education
  None22.2(21.7 to 22.7)
  Primary30.7(30.3 to 31.1)
  Secondary or higher47.1(46.6 to 47.6)
Martial status
  Currently married/in union99.4(99.3 to 99.4)
  Formerly married/in union0.4(0.4 to 0.5)
  Never married/in union0.2(0.2 to 0.2)
Maternal age (years)
 15–191.4(1.3 to 1.5)
 20–2416.6(16.4 to 16.9)
 25–2928.9(28.5 to 29.2)
 30–3424.6(24.3 to 24.9)
 35–3917.2(17.0 to 17.5)
 40–448.5(8.3 to 8.7)
 45–492.8(2.7 to 2.9)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest20.7(20.2 to 21.2)
 Poor20.6(20.3 to 21.0)
 Middle19.6(19.2 to 19.9)
 Rich18.3(18.0 to 18.7)
 Richest20.8(20.3 to 21.2)
Rural residence64.0(63.3 to 64.7)
Child outcomes
  ECDI z-scores, mean (SD)0.0 (1.0)
  HAZ, mean (SD)−1.39 (1.5)
  WAZ, mean (SD)−0.89 (1.3)
  WHZ, mean (SD)−0.07 (1.3)
  • ECDI, Early Childhood Development Index; HAZ, height-for-age z-score; WAZ, weight-for-age z-score; WHZ, weight-for-height z-score.