Table 3

Subgroup analyses for associations between maternal and paternal education and HAZ and ECDI z-scores by national development indicators

HAZ (n = 77 289)Low adult illiteracy
(n=43 412)
High adult illiteracy
(n=33 194)
Low gender inequality
(n=22 124)
High gender inequality
(n=46 499)
Low infant mortality
(n=39 226)
High infant mortality
(n=33 445)
Low food insecurity
(n=9813)
High food insecurity
(n=37 472)
Maternal education
 Primary0.10***
(0.05 to 0.14)
0.21***
(0.17 to 0.26)
0.13***
(0.07 to 0.19)
0.10***
(0.06 to 0.13)
0.07**
(0.03 to 0.11)
0.23***
(0.18 to 0.28)
−0.02
(−0.12 to 0.08)
0.21***
(0.17 to 0.25)
 Secondary or higher0.24***
(0.19 to 0.29)
0.50***
(0.44 to 0.56)
0.29***
(0.22 to 0.36)
0.26***
(0.21 to 0.31)
0.24***
(0.19 to 0.28)
0.49***
(0.43 to 0.55)
0.12*
(0.01 to 0.22)
0.46***
(0.41 to 0.52)
Paternal education
 Primary0.03
(−0.02 to 0.08)
0.12***
(0.07 to 0.16)
−0.01
(−0.08 to 0.06)
0.07**
(0.02 to 0.11)
0.02
(−0.03 to 0.06)
0.16***
(0.11 to 0.22)
−0.02
(−0.13 to 0.09)
0.11***
(0.05 to 0.15)
 Secondary or higher0.12***
(0.06 to 0.17)
0.21***
(0.16 to 0.26)
0.05
(−0.02 to 0.12)
0.19***
(0.14 to 0.23)
0.11***
(0.06 to 0.15)
0.25***
(0.19 to 0.31)
0.01
(−0.12 to 0.13)
0.21***
(0.16 to 0.26)