Table 1

Characteristics and results of included studies on incidence and progression of CKD

Author (year)CountryDesign/settingsSample sizeAge
Duration (years)IndicatorsCriteria for CKD and ESRD
Included studies on the association between SES and incidence of CKD
Al-Qaoud et al (2011)24 UKCross-sectional/population553365.6OccupationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—EPI
Amato et al (2005)53 MexicoCross-sectional/population356447Income/education/occupationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—CG/BSA
Choi et al (2011)37 USACross-sectional/population61 45754EducationGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m3
Chudek et al (2014)48 PolandCross-sectional/population3797≥65Income/education/occupationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—EPI; ACR>30 mg/g
Crews et al (2010)36 USACross-sectional/population237548.3CombinedeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Fisher et al (2008)38 USACross-sectional/population12 947IncomeeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—MDRD
Flessner et al (2009)35 USACross-sectional/population343152.7Income/educationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—EPI; ACR>30 mg/g
Fraser et al (2014)49 EnglandCross-sectional/population13 065IncomeeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Kim et al (2015)39 KoreaCross-sectional/population45 208Income/education/occupationGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Lin et al (2013)40 TaiwanCross-sectional/population335247.5Income/educationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria
Liu et al (2012)41 ChinaCross-sectional/population121449.4EducationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria
Martins et al (2006)56 USACross-sectional/population14 484IncomeACR>300 mg/day (>200 µg/min)
Seck et al (2014)42 SenegalCross-sectional/population103747.9EducationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2— MDRD; albuminuria >1 g/L
Seck et al (2014)34 SenegalCross-sectional/population103648.0EducationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Singh et al (2009)81 IndiaCross-sectional/population315540.1EducationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—CG/BSA
So et al (2015)17 ScotlandCross-sectional/population313 63950.0SESeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—MDRD
Tamrat et al (2015)57 USACross-sectional/population46247.3IncomeeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Vart et al (2013)52 USACross-sectional/population642847.3Income/educationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—EPI; AER>30 mg/24 hours; ACR>30 mg/g
Vart et al (2013)52 NetherlandsCross-sectional/population798348.9Income/educationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—EPI; AER>30 mg/24 hours; ACR>30 mg/g
Vart et al (2015)15 USACross-sectional/population982349.0CombinedeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or ACR>30 mg/day
White et al (2008)43 USACross-sectional/population9098Income/education/occupationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—MDRD
White et al (2008)43 AustraliaCross-sectional/population9329Income/education/occupationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—MDRD
White et al (2008)43 ThailandCross-sectional/population5063Income/education/occupationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2—MDRD
Wolf et al (2011)14 GermanyCross-sectional/hospital82562.9CombinedeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Xue et al (2014)44 ChinaCross-sectional/hospital14 39949.0EducationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Hsieh et al (2012)45 TaiwanCase–control/hospital42466.83.5EducationGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or with proteinuria
Fored et al (2003)25 SwedenCase–control/population192457.62Occupation/educationMale (Scr≥300 μmol/L), female (Scr≥250 µmol/L)
Su et al (2015)46 TaiwanCase–control/hospital10 46357.02.5IncomeeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or with proteinuria
Bruce et al (2010)8 USACohort/population343054.33.5Income/educationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or with proteinuria
Drey et al (2003)54 BritainCohort/population10766CombinedScr≥150 μmol/L
Guessous et al (2014)50 SwitzerlandCohort/population444152.65EducationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or with proteinuria
Shoham et al (2008)55 USACohort/population15 79253.615Income/occupationeGFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m2 or hospital discharge diagnosis
Tohidi et al (2012)26 IranCohort/population331339.79.9EducationeGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Included studies on the association between SES and progression of CKD
Akrawi et al (2014)23 SwedenProspective cohort study/population-based5 593 51643.510Neighbourhood deprivation/education/family incomeESRD (surgical codes for transplantation or dialysis)
Couchoud et al (2012)60 FranceProspective cohort study/population-based1Individual income, education/occupationESRD (initiation of dialysis or receiving a renal graft)
Crews et al (2014)7 USAProspective cohort study/population-based23 31464.86County poverty level/household income/educationESRD (initiation of renal replacement therapy)
Hossain et al (2012)16 UKRetrospective cohort study/hospital-based918673Area SES/education/occupationESRD (initiation of dialysis)
Hsu et al (2009)58 USARetrospective cohort study/population-based177 57040.725.7EducationESRD (treated with maintenance dialysis or renal transplantation)
Klag et al (1997)61 USAProspective cohort study/population-based332 54445.916Household incomeESRD (treatment for ESRD or death from renal failure)
Lipworth et al (2012)62 USAProspective cohort study/population-based79 94352.18Household income/educationESRD (initiation of renal replacement therapy)
Ward (2008)20 USARetrospective cohort study/population-based747 556>208.5SESESRD (treated with maintenance dialysis or renal transplantation)
Young et al (1994)65 USARetrospective cohort study/population-based<606Individual incomeESRD (treated with maintenance dialysis or renal transplantation)
Young et al (2016)66 USAProspective cohort study/population-based3653548.04Income/education30% decline in eGFR during follow-up
Merkin et al (2007)19 USARetrospective cohort/population473572.77Income/education/area SESScr elevation ≥35 μmol/L or CKD hospitalisation
Merkin et al (2005)18 USARetrospective cohort/population12 85654.19CombinedScr elevation ≥35 μmol/L or CKD hospitalisation
Tsai et al (2009)64 TaiwanCase–control study/hospital-based40046.01Household income/educationESRD (new diagnosed patients dialysis dependent)
Perneger et al (1995)63 USACase–control study/population-based107747.40.5Household income/educationESRD (initiation of renal replacement therapy)
  • ACR, albumin creatinine ratio; AER, albumin excretion rate; CG/BSA, Cockcroft-Gault normalised to body surface area equation; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; EPI, epidemiology collaboration ; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation; Scr, serum creatinine; SES, socioeconomic status.