Table 2

Pooled OR (from cross-sectional) of CKD prevalence in the lower SES indicators compared with the higher in series of subgroup analyses

Subgroup (prevalence)IncomeEducationOccupation
nOR (95% CI)I(P)nOR (95% CI)I2 (P)nOR (95% CI)I2 (P)
Overall171.34 (1.18 to 1.53)73.0% (0.050)141.21 (1.11 to 1.32)45.2% (0.034)71.09 (0.96 to 1.23)26.4% (0.227)
Geographic area
 USA91.55 (1.37 to 1.75)47.8% (0.053)41.17 (1.01 to 1.36)38.8% (0.179)11.12 (0.82 to 1.52)
 Europe31.14 (0.93 to 1.41)33.3% (0.223)21.18 (0.74 to 1.88)82.0% (0.018)21.12 (0.89 to 1.41)55.0% (0.136)
 Asian-Pacific Region31.01 (0.85 to 1.20)0.0% (0.516)51.21 (1.09 to 1.33)2.6% (0.392)21.27 (0.99 to 1.62)0.0% (0.975)
 Latin America21.35 (0.70 to 2.59)88.3% (0.003)20.87 (0.69 to 1.09)0.0% (0.780)
 Africa011.18 (0.46 to 3.03)0
Country’s income level
 High121.49 (1.32 to 1.67)50.1% (0.024)61.18 (1.04 to 1.35)46.0% (0.099)31.21 (1.06 to 1.38)0.0% (0.8490)
 Upper middle31.20 (0.83 to 1.74)79.6% (0.007)31.28 (0.90 to 1.82)81.3% (0.005)30.91 (0.76 to 1.08)0.0% (0.802)
 Lower middle20.98 (0.81 to 1.17)0.0% (0.779)41.25 (1.13 to 1.39)0.0% (0.695)11.27 (0.92 to 1.76)
 Low011.18 (0.46 to 3.03)0
Adjustments for CKD-related risk factors
 None51.66 (1.25 to 2.20)72.7% (0.005)31.67 (1.34 to 2.06)0.0% (0.398)10.83 (0.56 to 1.24)
 Health behaviours10.99 (0.76 to 1.30)10.93 (0.71 to 1.21)10.97 (0.74 to 1.27)
 Comorbid conditions11.24 (0.94 to 1.65)011.23 (1.05 to 1.44)
 +Health behaviours71.20 (0.99 to 1.45)74.7% (<0.001)81.23 (1.14 to 1.33)0.0% (0.630)41.10 (0.93 to 1.30)14.3% (0.321)
 +Healthcare access31.46 (1.23 to 1.74)49.4% (0.139)21.11 (1.03 to 1.20)0.0% (0.398)0
Study period
 2000s71.35 (1.14 to 1.60)42.2% (0.109)51.24 (0.97 to 1.57)68.3% (0.013)41.13 (0.94 to 1.34)3.2% (0.376)
 2010s101.34 (1.11 to 1.62)81.6% (<0.001)91.20 (1.10 to 1.30)27.4% (0.200)31.05 (0.85 to 1.29)60.0% (0.082)
CKD definitions
 MDRD equation91.24 (1.08 to 1.43)40.2% (0.099)91.16 (1.09 to 1.25)9.9% (0.352)31.21 (1.00 to 1.46)0.0% (0.83)
 EPI equation71.40 (1.13 to 1.75)83.6% (<0.001)41.23 (0.99 to 1.53)55.0% (0.084)31.05 (0.85 to 1.29)60.0% (0.082)
 CG/BSA equation11.91 (1.32 to 2.78)11.97 (1.37 to 2.83)10.83 (0.56 to 1.25)
  • CG/BSA, Cockcroft-Gault normalised to body surface area equation; CKD, chronic kidney disease; EPI, epidemiology collaboration equation; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study; SES, socioeconomic status.