Table 1

Disadvantage indicators measured in LSAC at 4–5 years according to the four social determinant lenses and bioecological setting

SociodemographicChild speaks language other than EnglishMain caregiver speaks language other than English
Child has medical condition or disabilityMain caregiver income
Household income
Main caregiver level of education
Main caregiver occupation
Main caregiver financial hardship
Parents of child are partners
Number of people in household
Geographical environmentsNeighbourhood liveabilityUrban versus regional location (L)
Community socioeconomic status (L)
Health conditionsChild tooth decayMain caregiver depression
Main caregiver medical condition or disability
Risk factorsChild body mass index (D)Main caregiver body mass index
Child eats high fat foods and high sugar drinksMain caregiver smoking status
Child unmet need for servicesMain caregiver binge drinking
Child physical inactivityMain caregiver physical arguments with partner
Home education environment
Number of homes child lived in
Main caregiver argumentative partner relationship
Main caregiver angry parenting style
Stressful life events within the family
Main caregiver unmet need for social support
  • All variables are parent reported except where indicated.

  • D, direct assessment; L, linked data; LSAC, Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.