Table 1

Summary of some of the main challenges facing Wikipedia and example measures to address them

ChallengeProposed solution(s)
Content accuracy, readability and language bias 23 45 60
Highly variable article quality
Much important information only available to English-language speakers
Greater participation of experts—edits beget edits48
Content addition through external partnerships
Automated language complexity information
Tools to recommend articles for translation60
Editor numbers, demographic bias and expertise 46 56
Size of the community insufficient to support sufficiently diverse expertise
Over-representation of male, white editors from high-income countries
Tracking and reward for contribution still underdeveloped
Target diverse editor recruitment
Support interface and cultural changes that reduce disadvantage for under-represented groups46
Develop more sophisticated ways to summarise a contributor’s impact56
Bureaucracy and policy complexity 47
Wikipedia’s norms and policies can be different from those that medical and research professionals are used to, and their descriptions are overly complex.
Simplify and consolidate rules, particularly for new contributors
Promote compatible collaboration models with external partners